Glossary Entries




From DAMPING DOWN To FUNICLE   


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Name Origin Description Extra
D
DAMPING DOWN
v [M.E. of Gmc origin; O.E. adune, downwards]
Wetting greehouse floors and staging with water to increase humidity, particularl in hot weather.
DAMPING OFF
v [M.E. of Gmc origin; O.E. a var. of of.]
The sudden death of a seedling soon after emergence.
DEAD-HEADING
v [O.E. dead; heafod; of Gmc origin]
The removal of flowers or flowerheads in order to stimulate better growth or new flowers.
DECIDUOUS
a [L.decidere, to fall down]
Of plants that at the end of the growing season drops its leaves and renew them at the beginning of next season semi-deciduous plants renew some of their leaves at the end growing season.
DECLINATE
a [L. de, away; clinare, to bend]
(of stamens) Curving downwards.
DECURRENT
a L. decurrere, to run downwards]
(of leaves) The leaves of these leaves extends down and almost wrap around the stem of the plant. Image /leafshapes/81?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DECUSSATE
a [L. decustare, to cross]
(of leaves) Arranged in opposite pairs on the stem, with each pair at 90 degrees to the preceding pair Image /leafshapes/98?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DEFOLIATION
a [L. de, away; folium, leaf]
The loss of leaves from a plant or tree.
DEGRADABLE POT
n [L. de, down; gradus, grade; O.E.pott, pot]
A pot made of degradable material such as compressed peat or paper.
DEGREE DAY
n [L. de, down;gradus, grade;OE. daeg, day]
A unit of accrued temperature above a set mean over a period of days. Often abbreviated DD.
DEHISCENCE
n [L. dehiscere, to gape]
Term used of fruits (usually capsules) and anthers to describe the process of opening at maturity to release their contents.
DEHISCENT
a [L. dehiscere, to gape]
Of a fruit, usually capsule, or an anther that splits along definite lines to release seeds or pollen.
DELIQUESCENT
a [L. delitescere, to become fluid]
Of a plant growth becoming fluid where growth divides into a number of branches. To become liquid.
DELTOID
a [Gk. delta; edios, form]
(of leaves) A triangular leaf shape with a point at the apex. Image /leafshapes/3?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DENDROID
a [Gk. dendron, tree]
Tree-like in form.
DENITRICICATION
n [L. de, away; Gk. nitron, soda;L. facere, to make]
A reduction in nitrates to nitrites and ammonia in plants or soil nitrogen fixation by bacteria.
DENTATE
a [L. dens, tooth]
Having large saw-like teeth on thew margin of leaves. Similar to being serrated. Image /leafshapes/25?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DENTICLE
n [L. denticulus, little tooth]
Small tooth like processes on which spores are produced.
DENTICULATE
a [L. denticulus, little topoth]
Having a finely toothed margin. See DENTATE, CRENATE. Image /leafshapes/26?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DERIVED
v [L. de, down; rivus, brook]
Originating from an earlier form or group.
DESICCATED
a [L. desiccareg, to make absolutely dry]
A substance or organism without any moisture.
DETERMINATE
a [L. deterninare, to limit]
Used of inflorescences where the central or terminal flower opens first so that the rest cannot extend further.
DI-
prx [Gk. dis, twice]
A prefix meaning two.
DIAPAUSE
n [Gk. diapauen, to make to cease]
A genetically controlled condition of dormancy or resting stage of an organism. cf. [QUIESCENCE]
DIBBER
n [M.E. dibble]
A tool used for make a depression in soil or potting compost into which seedlings or cuttings are inserted.
DICHASIUM
n [Gk. dichazein, to divide in two]
A form of cymose inflorescence with each branch giving rise to two other branches. cf MONOCHASIUM. Image /flowerinfos/21?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DICHOTOMOUS
a [Gk. dicha, in two; tamnien, to cut]
Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
DICOTYLEDON
n [Gk. di, two; kotyledon, cup-shaped hollow]
A flowering plant which has two cotyledons or seed leaves in the embro. It is also characterized by the (usually) veined leaves and the petals and sepals in multiples of two, four, or five. and the presence of a cambium. See MONOCOTYLEDON.
DIDYMOUS
a [Gk. didymos twin]
Growing in pairs.
DIDYNAMOUS
a [Gk. di, two; dynamis, power]
Having four stamens 2 longer and two shorter.
DIE-BACK
n [Gmc. die, dead; back, rear]
The death of tips of branches or the tips of roots as a result of damage-or diseased.
DIGITATELY ARRANGED
a [L. digitus, finger; ad, to; rangier, range]
Having several small leaves (like the fingers of a hand) starting from the end of a petiole or leaf stalk. Image /leafshapes/93?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DIKARYON
n [Gk. dis, twice; karyon, nucleus]
A pair of nucleus in a cell which divide at the same time.
DIKARYOTIC
a [Gk. dis, twice; karyon, nucleus]
pertaining to dikaryon. Of an organism having two sets of chromosomes. alt.[DIPLOID] CF. [HAPLOID, HEMIKARYOTIC, DUPLEX]
DIMORPHISM
n [Gk. dis, twice; morphe, shape]
(adj. dimorphic) Having two distinct forms.
DIOECIOUS
a [Gk. dis, twice; oikos, house]
Bearing male and female reproductive organs on separate plants. a plant having male and female flowers on separate plants. cf. MONOECIOUS
DIPLOID
a [Gk. dip;oos, double]
Of an organism having two sets of chromosomes. alt[DIKARYOTIC] cf.[HAPLOID, DUPLEX]
DIPOLAR
a [Gk.. dis, twice; L. polus, pole]
Having located at two ends of an object or cell. Sexual compatibility in some fungi spores where two types of spores are produced. Located at both north and south poles of the earth. Alt.[BIPOLAR]
DISBUDDING
v [O.Fr. dis, reversal of action; ME. budde, bud ]
The removal of surplus buds to promote the production high-quality flowers or fruits.
DISEASE
n [OF. desaise, lack of ease]
A dysfunction or abnormal structure or function in animals or plants, usually affecting the growth or function of the animal or plant.
DISEASE
n OF. desaise, lack of ease]
A dysfunction or abnormal structure or function in animals or plants, usually affecting the growth or function of the animal or plant.
DISEASE CYCLE
n [OF. desaise, lack of ease; Gk. kyklos, circle]
The chain of events involved in the development of the disease from the start to the end of the disease.
DISEASE CYCLE
n [OF. desaise, lack of ease; Gk. kyklos, circle]
The chain of events involved in the development of the disease from the start to the end of the disease.
DISINFECTANT
n [L. des, negative;inficere, to taint]
A physical or chemical substance that is used to eradicate fungi or bacteria. cf[DISINFESTANT]
DISINFESTANT
n [L. des, negative; infestere, to be hostile]
A substance used to kill or inactivate external organisms before infection can occur. cf[DISINFECTANT]
DISK
n [L. discus, disc]
The fleshy outgrowth developed from the receptacle at the base of the ovary or from the stamens surrounding the ovary it often secretes nectar. q.v. DISC.
DISORDER
n [L. des, negative; ordinare, ordain]
A lack of order. A confused or untidy state.
DISSEMINATION
n [L. disseminare, to scatter seed]
The spread of infectious substances or organisms. Usually applied to infection of healthy organism from an infected one.
DISTAL
a [L. distare, to stand apart]
Referring to an area of an organism or plant that is furthest from the point of attachment to the body.
DISTAL END
a [L. distare, to stand apart; endus, end]
(of cuttings) The end that was originally farthest from the crown of the parent plant. (Cf. PROXIMINAL END.)
DISTICHOUS
a [Gk. distichos, with two rows]
A stem with leaves that alternate left and right with an angle of 180 degrees between the leaves. Image /leafshapes/36?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DIURNAL
a [L. diurnus, pertaining to the day length]
Opening or active during the day or any pattern that recurs daily.
DIVISION
n [L. divisio, division]
A method of increasing plants by dividing them into pieces each with a root system and a more shoots (or dormant buds)
DNA
n [L. de away; Fr. oxygene, acidifying; ribonucleic acid]
The self replicating spiral molecule which carries all the hereditary information of all living things. It usually resides in the nucleus and makes up the chromosomes which carries the genes. It is formed from nucleotides each containing the sugar deoxyribose, a low energy phosphate group and one of four different bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.
DOLIFPOR SEPTUM
n [L. dolium, wine-cask; Gk. poros, channel; L. septum, partition]
In Basidiomycota fungi the wall structure that separates the cells and containing a dolipore which allows the passage of small organelles, but restricts the movement of the nucleus.
DOLIIFORM
a [L. dolium, wine-cask]
Shaped like a barrel. alt[DOLIOFORM]
DOLIOFORM
a [L. dolium, wine-cask]
Shaped like a barrel. alt[DOLIIFORM]
DOLIPORE
n [L. dolium, wine-cask; Gk. poros, channel]
The pore in the septum or wall of the hyphae of Basiciomycetes. It is barrel shaped and covered by pore caps. These caps are curved shaped and found on either side of pores in the dolipore septum which separates cells within the hypha.
DORMANCY
n [L. dornire, to sleep]
The state of temp cessation of growth and slowing down of other activities in whole plants usually during the winter. Seed dormancy: non-germination of seed when placed in conditions suitable for germination due to physical, chemical or other factors inherent in the seed: double (seed) dormancy non-germination of seeds due to two dormancy factors in the seed.
DORSAL
a [L. dorsum, back]
Upper surface.
DORSIFIXED
a [L. dorsum, back; fingere, fix]
(of anthers) having the filament attached to the back of the anthler. cf basifixed.
DOUBLE
n [L. duplus, two]
Flower whose genetic makeup has been modified so that they produce large petals from all its florets or with twice its normal compliment of petals for its class. See Flower. Image /flowerinfos/32?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DOUBLE CORDON
a [L. duplus, two; chorda, gut, string]
A trained plant (usually a fruit tree) generally restricted to one main stem by rigorous pruning. A single cordon has one main stem, a double, or "U", cordon has two, and a multiple cordon, three or more stems.
DOUBLE DIGGING
v [L. duplus, two]
Digging the soil to twice the depth of the spade then adding humus and mixing the top soil first then the second layer on top, with more humus.
DRAINAGE
n [Gmc. rel to dry]
The passage of excess water hrough soil the term is also applied to systems of drainage used to remove excess water.
DREPANIUM
n [Gk. drepane, sickle]
(of inflorescences) A cymose inflorescence with successive branches on one side only normally flattened in one plane and curved to one side Image /flowerinfos/24?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DRILL
n [Gmc. drillich, drilling]
A narrow, straight furrow in he soil in which seeds are sown m seedlings planted.
DRUPE
n [Gk. dryppa, olive]
A fleshy fruit containing one or more seeds, each of which is surrounded by a stony layer
DUPLEX
a [L. duplex, two fold]
Having two distinct structures or parts.
E
EARTHING UP
n [OE. eorthe, earth; upp, up]
Drawing up soil around he base of a plant to help prevent vind-rock, to blanch the stems, or to encourage stem rooting.
ECHINULATE
a [Gk. echinos, covered in spines]
Covered with pointed outgrowths. alt[TRIBOLOID]
ECONOMIC INJURY LEVEL
n [Gk. oikonomia, household management; L.injuria, a wrong]
The lowest level of population density of a pest that causes damage equal to the cost of the control measures used.
ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
n [Gk. oikonomia, household management; L. limen, threshold]
The population density of a pest that is allowed before control measures is applied to stop the pest from reaching the economic injury level.
ECTOPARASITE
n [Gk. ektos, outside; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EPIZOON EXOPARASITE]
ECTOSITE
n [Gk. ektos, outside; sitos, food]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EPIZOON, EXOPARASITE]
ECTOZOON
n [Gk. ektos, outside; zoon, animal]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EXOPARASITE]
EDEMA
n [Gk. oidema, swelling]
us spelling of [OEDEMA] A swelling of tissues, usually caused by excess fluid in the cavities between cells or tissues of the body.
EGG
n [A.S. aeg, egg]
The reproductive female gamete, organ or body of animals. alt[OVUM]
EGUTTULATE
a [L. ex, out; gutta, drop]
Of cells or spores which do not contain oil-like droplets. see [GUTTATE, GUTTULATE]
EIA
n acronym [Enzyme immunosorbent assay]
It is a diagnostic tool in medicine and biology, as well as a quality control check. Antigens or anitbodies are captured by an enzyme attach to a substrate. When attached there is a colour change or UV light might cause fluorescent. alt[ELISA]
EJACULATE
n L. ejaculatus, thrown out]
The emitted seminal fluid which is thrown out with some force. cf.[JACULATE]
ELAIOSOME
n [Gk. elaion, oil; soma, body]
A fleshy outgrowth on a seed with oily substances attractive to ants. Such as the caruncle of castor oil.
ELISA
n acronym [Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay]
It is a diagnostic tool in medicine and biology, as well as a quality control check. Antigens or anitbodies are captured by an enzyme attach to a substrate. When attached there is a colour change or UV light might cause fluorescent. alt[EIA]
ELLIPTIC
a [Gk. elleipsis, a falling short]
(of leaves) Oval-shaped, with narrowed ends Image /leafshapes/5?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
ELYTRON
n [L. elytron, sheath]
Plural[ELYTRA]. The anterior wing of insects especially beetles, which is hard and case-like. alt [ELYTRUM]
ELYTRUM
n [L. elytron, sheath]
Plural[ELYTRA]. The anterior wing of insects especially beetles, which is hard and case-like. alt [ELYTRON]
EMARGINATE
a [L. ex, out; marginare, to delimit]
(of leaves) The leaves have a shallow notch at the tip. Image /leafshapes/68?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
EMBRYO
n [Gk. embryon, embro]
The rudimentary plant within the seed.
EMBRYO SAC
n [Gk. embryon, embro;L.saccus, sack]
The central portion of the ovule a thin-walled sac. within the nucellus containing the egg nucleus.
ENATION
n [L. enatus, grown from]
An outgrowth from a normally smooth surface.
ENDEMIC
a [Gk. endemos, native]
Referring to something that is restrictive to a certain region. Native ti that area.
ENDOCARP
n [Gk. endon, within; karpus, fruit]
The innermost layer of the ovary wall (pericarp) of a fruit. In some fruits it becomes hard and "stony" cf DRUPE.
ENDOCONIDIUM
n [Gk. endon, within; konis, dust, idion, dim.]
A spore(conidium) formed in a conidiophore(hypha).
ENDODERMIS
n [Gk. endon, within; derma, skin]
The innermost single cell layer, without intercellular spaces, of the cortical cells in plants that is located between the cortex and the vascular system (xylem and phloem), but outside of the pericycle. This single cell layer is coated with suberin which forms the casparian strip, which is impervious to water and forcing water carrying mineral salts to enter the root through the interior of cells (the symplast) as opposed to passing between cells (the apoplast).
ENDOSPERM
n [Gk. endon, within; sperm, seed]
The nutritious tissue of most seeds, usually surrounding the embryo. q.v.[ALBUMEN]
ENSIFORM
a [L. ensis, sword; forma, shape]
(of leaves) Shaped like a sword, as the leaf of an Iris. Image /leafshapes/6?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
ENTEROBLAST
n [Gk. enteron, gut, blastos, bud]
In the gut enteroblasts are precursors cells that do not divide any more but can differentiate into enterocytes cells(intestinal absorptive cells) or enteroendocrine cells(hormone producers)
ENTEROBLASTIC FUNGI
n [Gk. enteron, gut; blastos, bud; L. fungus, mushroom]
Are fungi where conidia are produced, usually from a phialide, without the inner wall of the phailide being directly involved in the formation of the conidium wall.
ENTIRE
a [O.F. entier, untouched]
(of leaves) With an undivided margin. Image /leafshapes/27?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
ENZYME
n [Gk. en, in;zyme, leaven]
A protien based catalyst produced by living organisms, which acts on one or more substrates. cf.[COENZYME]
EPICALYX
n [Gk. epi, upon; kalyk, cup]
A whorl of sepal-like appendages resembling the calyx but outside the true calyx.
EPICHILE
n [Gk. epi, upon. chellos,lip]
In orchids the lip which is divided into three parts known as the hypochile, mesochile and epichile. The terminal part of the lip in some orchids, distinctly different from the basal part. See HYPOCHILE, MESOCHILE
EPICORMIE
n [Gk. epi, upon; kormos, trunk]
Shoots that develop from latent or adventitious buds on or from the 'trunk of a tree or shrub. (See also WATER SHOOTS.)
EPIDEMIC
n [Gk. epidemia, prevelance of a disease]
An uncontrolled rapid increase of a disease or a pest
EPIDEMIOLOGY
n [Gk. epidemia, prevelance of a disease; legein, to speak]
The study of the initiation, development and spread of a disease or pest.
EPIDERMIS
n [Gk. epi, upon; derma, skin]
Usually a single layer of living cells forming the protective covering to many plant organs, particularly leaves,
EPIGEAL
n [Gk. epi, upon; ge, earth]
Type of seed germination in which the seed is pushed above soil level by elongation of the hypocotyl. Cf HYPOGEAL.
EPIGYNOUS
a [Gk. epi, upon; gyne, woman]
(of flowers) With the sepals, petals and stamens inserted near the top of the ovary.
EPINASTY
n [Gk. epi, upon; nastos, pressed down]
A downward curving of leaves or other plant parts, resulting from greater growth of the upper side.
EPIPARASITE
n [Gk. epi, upon; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIZOON, EXOPARASITE]
EPIPETALOUS
a [Gk. epi, upon; petalon, leaf]
Attached to the petals or corolla.
EPIPHYLLOUS
a [Gk. epi, upon; phylon, leaf]
Growing on leaves.
EPIPHYTE
n [Gk. epi, upon; phyton, plant]
A plant that grows on another plant without being parasitic, and ) obtains moisture and nutrients from the atmosphere without rooting into the soil.
EPIZOON
n [Gk. epi, upon; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARSITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EXOPARASITE]
ERADICATION
n [L. eradicare, tear up from the roots]
The elimination of an organism from an area.
ERECT
a [L. erigere, to raise up]
(of an ovule) Upright, with its stalk at the base.
ERIEACEOUS
a [Gk. ereike ]
1) Term describing plants of the family Ericaceae, usually lime-hating and requiring soils of )H6.5 or less (see also CALCIFUGE). 2) Of compost, with an appropriate pH or acidity for growing ericaceous plants.
ERUMPENT
a [L. erumpere, to break out]
Bursting through the surface.
ESPALIER
n [L. spatula, shoulder blade]
A plant trained with the main stem vertical and (usually) three or more tiers of branches horizontally) laced on either side in a single plane often applied to fruit trees.
ETIOLOGY
n [Gk. aitia, cause; logos, discourse]
The science OR study of the origin of causes. alt [AEITOLOGY]
EVERGREEN
a [O.E. oefre, of unkown origin; grene, rel to grass]
Of plants that retain their foliage for more than one growing season semi-evergreen plants retain only a small proportion of their leaves for more than one season
EXALATE
a [L. ex, without; ala wing]
Wingless. Having no wing-like extentions on stems or petioles. alt APTEROUS
EXINE
n [L. exter, outside ]
The outer layer of the wall of a pollen grain. q.v. EXTINE
EXOCARP
n [Gk. exo, without; karpos, fruit]
The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
EXOPARASITE
n [Gk. exo, outside; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EPIZOON]
EXSERTED
a [L. exserere, to syretch out]
Protruding beyond some organ or part. (appl. stamens which protrude beyond the corolla.)
EXSTIPULATE
a [L. ex, without; stipula, stem]
Without stipules. (alt. astipulate, estipulate, instipulate]
EXTINE
n [L. exter, outside ]
The outer layer of the wall of a pollen grain. q.v. EXINE
EXTRORSE
a [L. extrorsus, outwardly]
(of anthers) Opening away from the axis of growth towards the corolla. (appl. dihesence of anthlers.)
EXUDATE
n [L. exudare, to sweat]
A substance that is secreted, exuded or discharged.
EXUDATION
n [L. exudare, to sweat]
The discharge of substances from a cell or organism through a membrane, incision or gland. e.g. resins or moisture
EXUVIAE
n [L. exuere, to strip off]
The cast off skins, shells of arthropods.
EYE
n [A.S. eage, eye]
1) A dormant or latent growth )ad, such as the eye of a potato or diahlia tuber. 2) The centre of a flower especially if different in colour from he petals.
F
F1 HYBRIDS
n [L. hibrida, cross]
First-generation plants obtained from crossing two selected ) pure-breeding parents to produce uniform, vigorous, and high-yielding offspring. Seed from F1 hybrids does not come true. F2 hybrids: plants that result from self- or cross-fertilization of F1 hybrids they are less uniform than heir parents.
FACULA
n [L. fac, torch]
plu. [FACULAE] A bright spot. Especially on the surface of the sun.
FACULTIVE ORGANISM
n [L. facultas, ability; Gk. organnon, instrument]
A faculative organisms are organisms that are capable of adopting an alternative mode of living. e.g. a facultative anaerobe is an aerobic organism that can also grow under anaerobic conditions like yeast in winemaking; or a faculative parasite/saprophyte changing from living as a saprophyte to a parasite or vice versa.
FALCATE
a [L. falx, sickle]
(of leaves) Curved and tapering to a point, sickle-shaped Image /leafshapes/7?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FALLOW
a [O.E. faelgian, to break up]
Inactive. Of farmland that is ploughed and harrowed and left for the weather to break up.
FALLOW
n [O.E. falu, yellow]
A pale brown or reddish-yellowish colour.
FALLS
n [OE. fallan, downfall]
The pendent or horizontally placed tepals or petals of irises and some related plants.
FALSE UMBEL
n [L. falsum, fraud; umbella, shade]
A multiply branched-off inflorescence with the flowers located at essentially one level or situated spherically
FAMILY
n [L. familia, household]
A category in plant classificaion, a grouping together of related genera, for example the family Rosaceae includes the genera Rosa, iorbus, Rubus, Prunus, and Pyracantha.
Family
n[L. familia, household]
A taxonomic classification group in plants and animals. It is above Genus and below Order in the classification system. A family consist of a group of related genera. Families are grouped into Orders and use to be called natural orders.
FASCIATION
L. [Fascia, Bundle]
Fasciation is a malformation in plant shoots, roots or flower tips where the growth tend to be thick and flattened. It occurs when something goes wrong with the cells at the growing tips of plants. Instead of growing normally the growing tip spreads laterally in a flattened or band-like growth. It has many causes and is usually a genetic mutation as some plants like the Cockscomb(Celosia) are grown for their flattened flowerhead. It can also be caused by a hormonal imbalance caused by mites or insect attack and bacteria such as Rhodococcus fascians or any damage to the growing tip. Herbicides containing growth regulators is a common cause of fasciation in gardens. Fasciation although rare, has been observed in over a hundred different plant species from Cactae, Succulents, Perennials to trees. Image /pests/170?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FASCICLE
n [L. fasciculus, small bundle]
A cluster or bundle.
FATIGIATE
a [L. fastigere, to slope up]
With the branches (usually ) of trees and shrubs) growing vertically and almost parallel with the main stem. See UPRIGHT TERM
FEATHERED
a [M.E. fether, feather]
Of maiden trees that have several lateral branches ("feathers").
FEBRIFUGE
n [L. febris, fever; fugare, to cause to flee]
A drug or medication that reduces fever; an antipyretic.
FEMALE FLOWER
n [L. femina woman; flos, flower]
A flower containing functional carpels, but not stamens.
FERTILE
a [L. fertilis, fertile]
(of plants). Producing viable seed shoots bearing flowers are also said to be fertile shoots as opposed to non-flowering (sterile) shoots.
FERTILIZATION
n [L. fertilis, fertile]
The fusion of a pollen grain nucleus (male) with an ovule (female) to form a fertile seed. Fibrous. l) Of roots, fine and often branching and dense. 2) Of loam, containing fibre derived from (dead) grass roots.
FILAMENT
n [L. filum, thread]
The stalk of the stamen which bears the anther. Image /flowerinfos/12?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FILIFORM
a [L. filum, threadlike; forma, shape]
Thread-like. Image /leafshapes/100?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FIMBRIATE
n [L. frimbriatus, fringed]
Of part of a plant that has a fringed margin. Plant organs with a fringe of hairs are said to be ciliate.
FLABELLATE
a [L. flabellare, to fan]
(of leaves) The leaf leaflets are aranged in a fan shape. Image /leafshapes/69?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FLAGELLATE
a [L. flagellum, whip]
Having flagella. Like a flagellum.
FLAGELLUM
n [L. flagellum, whip]
A whip like appendage of motive cells. The distal part of the antennae of some arthopods, as in the Order Diptera(true flies). A long slim runner or creeping stem. plu.[FLAGELLA]
FLAT
n [mod. from flat]
An American term for a shallow seed-box or container.
FLAT GRAFTING
v [O.F. graffe, graft]
A method often used to graft cacti, where the cuts are flat and placed together. See GRAFTING.
FLOATING CLOCHE
n [O.E flotian, float;Fr. cloche, bell]
Lightweight sheet, usually of woven polypropylene (fibre fleece), placed over a crop, which is lifted up by the plants as they grow. It provides some frost protection while allowing water and light penetration. Also known as floating mulch. (See also Cloche.)
FLORET
n [L. flos, flower]
A (generally) small flower in a flowerhead consisting of many flowers.
FLOWER
n [L. flos, flower]
The part of the plant containing the reproductive organs usually surrounded by sepals and petals. The basic flower forms are: single, with one row of usually four to six petals semi-double, with two or three times the normal number of petals usually in two or three rows double, with more than the normal number of petals in several rows with few or no stamens produced fully double, flowers usually rounded in shape, with densely packed petals and with the stamens obscured or absent. (Cf FLOWERHEAD.)
FLOWERHEAD
n [L. flos,flower;ME. hede, head]
A mass of small flowers or florets that together appear to form a single flower as in members of the family Compositae.
FOLLICLE
n [L. folliculus, small sac]
A dry fruit which is derived from a single carpel and which splits open along one side only.
FORCE
n [L. fortis, strong]
To induce plant growth, usually of flowers or fruit by control of the environment, normally by increasing the temperature.
FORMA
n [L. forma, shape]
(f.) A variant within a species usually distinguished only by minor characteristics. Clematis montana f. grandiflora is a larger-flowered, more vigorous form of C. montana also loosely used for any variant of a species.
FORMATIVE PRUNING
v [L. forma, shape; O.F. proignier,]
A method of pruning that is carried out on young trees and shrubs to develop the basic branch structure of the desired form or shape.
FOUNDATION PLANTING
v [L. fundare, bottom; planta, sprout]
The basic, and usually permanent, structural and shelter planting of trees and shrubs in a garden.
FRAME
n [O.E. framain, be usaeful]
A box loke structure made of glass or plastic in which plants are grown. See COLD FRAME
FRAME-WORKING
n [O.E. framain, be useful; weorc, work]
(of fruit trees). Pruning back all side growths to the main framework and grafting scions of a different cultivar onto each main framework branch.
FRAMEWORK
n [O.E. framain, be useful; weorc, work]
The permanent branch structure of a tree or shrub the main branches that determine its ultimate shape.
FRAMEWORK PLANTS
n [O.E. framian, be useful; weorc, work; plante, seedling]
the plants in a garden that form the basis or structure of the design. (Cf. FOUNDATION PLANTING)
FREE
a [A.S. freo, acting at pleasure]
(of petals, sepals, etc.) Not joined to each other or to any other organ.
FREE CENTRAL PLACENTATION
a[A.S. freo, acting at pleasure;L. centrum, centre; placenta, flat cake]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne on placentas on a free, central column within an ovary that has only one locule. cf. AXILE PLACENTATION
FRENCH LAYERING
n [O.E. frencisc, frank;M.E.layer, mason]
Involves digging a bit of a trench under the prospective branch, then pegging it down into that trench somehow (stiff wire U shaped deals maybe?) and filling a couple inches of soil over the branch. No hormones or wounding are used in this method. See LAYERING.
FRIABLE
a [L. friabilis, to crumble]
(of soil). Of a good, crumbly texture capable of forming a tilth that can be worked easily. Easily powdered.
FROND
n [L. frons, leafy branch]
1) The leaf-like organ of a fern. Some ferns produce both barren and fertile fronds, the latter bearing spores. 2) Loosely applied to large, usually compound leaves such as those of palms.
FROST HARDY
a [O.E. forst, to freeze; M.E. hardi, become bold]
A plant that can withstand temperatures below zero degrees. See HARDY.
FROST POCKET
n [O.E. forst, to freeze;M.E. poket, pouch]
A site, often a hollow, where cold air gathers, that is subject to severe and often prolonged frosts.
FROST TENDER
a [O.E. forst, to freeze;L. tener, delicate]
A plant that cannot withstand temperatures below zero degrees. See TENDER.
FRUIT
n [L. fructus, fruit]
Strictly the ripened ovary of a seed plant and its contents. Loosely, the whole structure containing ripe seeds, which may include more than the ovary cf achene, berry, capsule, drupe, follicle, nut, samara.
FRUIT
n [L. fructus, fruit]
The fertilized, ripe ovary of a plant containing one to many seeds, for example, berries, hips, capsules, and nuts the term is also used of edible fruits. Strictly the ripened ovary of a seed plant and its contents. Loosely, the whole structure containing ripe seeds, which may include more than the ovary cf achene, berry, capsule, drupe, follicle, nut, samara.
FRUIT BUD
n [L. fructus, fruit; M.E. budde, bud]
An outgrowth which develops into flowers and then into fruit. for example apples have specialised fruiting budds. See BUD.
FRUIT BUD
n [L. frug, fruit]
A bud from which leaves and flowers (followed by fruits) develop. See BUD.
FRUIT SET
n [L. fructus, fruit;secta, sect]
The successful development of fruits after pollination and fertilization.
FUGACIOUS
a [L. fugax, fleeting]
Withering or falling off rapidily. Alt. CADUCOUS. See DECIDUOUS
FULLY DOUBLE
a [O.E. full; L. duplus, double]
A composite flower which has all its petals, not jst the outer ones elongated. Most double flowers are sterile and are a horticultural development of a single flowered type. See FLOWER.
FULLY REFLEXED
a [O.E. full; L. reflectere, to turn back]
A flower with all its petals turned back 180 degrees, like the Turks Cap lilly. See REFLEXED.
FUNGICIDE
n [L. fungus, mushroom; -cidium, kill]
A chemical that kills fungi, especially those responsible for various plant diseases.
FUNICLE
n [L. funiculus, small cord]
The stalk of an ovule.

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