Pests and Diseases From Dahlia Smut To Fusarium Wilt


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D
Common Name:- Dahlia Smut
P_dahliasmut The symptoms of Dahlia smut are pale brown elongated spots with yellow markings appear on the leaves usually beginning on the lower leaves during cool, wet conditions. As the spots mature they blacken and then die, spores appear on the surface of ...
Caused by:- The Fungus Entyloma dahliae
Control:- The fungus requires very moist conditions to infect and spread whic...

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Common Name:- Damping Off
P_dampingoff Damping off occurs when seedlings suddenly die soon after emerging. Often they show discolouration an deterioration around the base of the seedlings. Some leaves may look waterlogged. Various fungi is the cause as one or more will enter the plant...
Caused by:- Various Fungi
Control:- The major cause of damping off is the inappropriate growing conditi...

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Common Name:- Delphinium Black Blotch
P_delphinblkspot Delphinium Black Blotch is caused by the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. delphinii which can affect Delphinium species and Monkshood and Aconitum. It is rarely fatal, but does reduces the vigour of infected plants especially in wet summers.
Caused by:- The Bacteria Pseudomonas delphinii
Control:- Dispose of affected plants as soon as symptoms are seen.<br /> Spr...

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Common Name:- Delphinium Moth
P_delphiniummoth This moth was originally called P. Moneta. During Spring the shoot tip leaves of Delphinium and Monkshood are stitched together by a fine silken threads by a small green caterpillar with black spots up to 40mm long. The caterpillar then feeds on t...
Caused by:- The Moth Polychrysia esmeralda
Control:- Spraying with a suitable insecticide or pick off the caterpillars w...

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Common Name:- Delphinium Viruses
P_delpniniumvirus There are several viruses that affects Delphiniums most of which gives the leaves a yellowing effect. The ringspot virus gives the leaves a faint yellow rings following the veins of the leaves affected. Irregular yellow spots with yellow banding m...
Caused by:- Various viruses
Control:- Burn infected plants and avoid planting Delphiniums or related plan...

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Common Name:- Delpninium Leaf Miner
P_delpnenlfminer Leafminers are larvae of various insects like small black flies, moths, sawflies or beetles, many of which are specific to certain plants. Phytomyza species is the Delphiium leaf miner whose larvae feed in small groups in the tissues between the u...
Caused by:- The Larvae of some Phytomyza species
Control:- Pick off and destroy all infested leaves. Larvae can sometimes be r...

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Common Name:- Dianthus Anther Smut
P_dianthusanthersmut The anthers of Dianthus species which include Carnations and Pinks become enlarged and dark as they get filled with spores of the fungus. When the anthers split the spores are released to carry on the infection.
Picture from wikimedia Comm...
Caused by:- The Fungus Ustilago violacea
Control:- As the fungus is present throughout the plant the infected plants s...

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Common Name:- Dianthus Fusarium Wilt
P_dianthusfuswilt Most wilts result from excessive transpiration, drying out of soil, bacterial, fungal, or viral problems and involve the vascular system. Two major Wilts are Verticillium wilt and Fusarium wilt. With Fusarium wilt the leaves become lighter green, ...
Caused by:- The Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.dianthi
Control:- The best way to control Fusarium Wilt is to destroy infected plants...

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Common Name:- Didymella Stem Rot
P_didymellastemrot This infection tends to occurs on the stem at or above the soil-line of tomatoes and related plants, but all parts of the plant can be affected. Dark brown, sunken areas form at the base of the plant and eventually expand to girdle the stem, resul...
Caused by:- The Fungus Didymella lycopersici
Control:- Fungicide sprays can be effective if applied in time. Good plant hy...

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Common Name:- Dieback
P_dieback Dieback disease may refer to a number of plant problems and diseases which directly or indirectly could include acid rain, heavy metal pollution, pathogens like bacteria that produce cankers, physical damage, various Fungi, stem or root rots, nem...
Caused by:- Various Causes
Control:- Identify the cause and treat appropriately, but an initial help to ...

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Common Name:- Dogs
P_dogs In general dogs are not a pest, but many dogs can cause damage to plant or trees. Some may dig up roots, some may scratch or bite off the bark of trees leading to death of the tree, some may urinate on the lower leaves which may scorch them and th...
Caused by:- Various Dogs
Control:- Some problems may be controlled by proper training of the dogs and ...

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Common Name:- Dogwood Anthracnose
P_dogwdanthracnose Dogwood anthracnose is a disease of Dogwood two types that are very suceptable are Cornus florida and C. nuttallii. This causal fungus favours cool damp conditions. Anything that weaken the tree may increase the severity of the disease. Leaf sympt...
Caused by:- The Fungus Discula destructica
Control:- Prune out and destroy affected areas and improve air circulation ar...

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Common Name:- Douglas Fir Adelgid
P_douglasfiradelgid This pest is also known by other names like Gall Adelgid and Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid as its life cycle is usually completed on at least two genus or species of fir trees over two years and is most prevalent where two susceptible firs are grown ...
Caused by:- The Insect Adelges cooleyi
Control:- The most evident damage caused by this insect is by the first sprin...

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Common Name:- Downy Mildew
P_downymildew Downy mildews are a common plant disease. It can affect all kinds of plants. Downy mildew is often confused with powdery mildew, but they are totally different diseases. Downy mildew is not a true fungi but is more closely related to algae and the...
Caused by:- Mainly Peronospora fungus species
Control:- Cultural control is by growing plants in good conditions, which inc...

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Common Name:- Drought
P_drought Drought is not really a pest, but can be considered as such. There are many causes of drought and the symptoms vary from plant to plant. The most obvious symptom is that the leaves and branches of plants wilt especially on warm days. Poor growth o...
Caused by:- Lack of water in soil
Control:- There are many things that can be done to prevent plants from suffe...

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Common Name:- Dry Rot of Corms
P_dryrotcorms Both these fungi causes dry rot in other species such as crocus, Freesias and Crocosmia, but Gladiolas are very prone to attack by these fungi. Both causes the plant to die-back and wilt sunken spots appear on the corms or bulbs which produce spor...
Caused by:- Stromatinia and Stromatinia gladioli fungus
Control:- Remove infected plants as soon as possible. Inspect stored corms an...

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Common Name:- Dutch Elm Disease
P_dutchelmdis Dutch elm disease, originally identified in Holland in 1920's, hence the name, is one of the most serious tree diseases in the world. It is caused by two related species of fungi Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the latter being a more virul...
Caused by:- Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi fungi
Control:- Management of Dutch Elm Disease requires a combination of strategie...

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E
Common Name:- Earthworms
P_earthworms Earthworms should never be classed as a pest and is one of the best animals to have in a garden. But in nicely manicured lawns some earthworms (mainly Allolobophora species) excrete worm casts, usually in the autumn, which is a nuisance. Earthworm...
Caused by:- Mailny Allolobophora species of Earthworms
Control:- It is not recommended to use chemical control for worms in the gras...

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Common Name:- Earwigs
P_earwigs There are many species of earwig, but the common European earwig - Forficula auricularia (sometimes called pincerbugs) generally, are not destructive and are not poisonous nor will they not bite or sting humans. They may pinch the skin with their ...
Caused by:- Forficula auricularia
Control:- If they are proving to be a nuisance and you must get rid of them r...

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Common Name:- Eelworms
P_eelworm There are thousands of Eelworm (nematode) species, only a small proportion are plant parasites attacking roots, bulbs, corms, leaves, stems and buds many are beneficial. Some are used in slug control and others eat soil born pests. They are tiny ...
Caused by:- Many Genus and species of nematodes
Control:- Good husbandry and hygiene are essential to help prevent attack as ...

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Common Name:- Elephant Hawk Moth
P_elephanthawkmoth The Elephant Hawk Moth is a large moth with a wingspan of about 45 to 60mm. There are about 18 species recorded in the UK. The adult moths are brounish/green and pink with a streamlined appearance and are usually seen around May to July feeding on...
Caused by:- The Moth Deilephila elpenor
Control:- This pest is a minor one and the moths are so beautiful that it is ...

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Common Name:- Elm Galls
P_elmgall There are many mites(related to spiders) and aphids(insect) that cause galls to occur on elms most affect the upper surface of the leaves where the protrudances disfigure the leaves. Some mites are microscopic and overwinter under the leaf bud she...
Caused by:- Various aphids and mites
Control:- Controlling gall insects is difficult, as any treatment applied aft...

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Common Name:- Enchytraeid worms
P_enchytraeidworms Enchytraeid worms are much smaller than earthworms around 1/4 of an inch(4mm) and are whitish. They are a gardeners friend as the the latest research indicates that they can break down organic matter. They are more usually found in wet acid soils ...
Caused by:- Various Genus of the Family of Enchytraeid worms
Control:- No control necessary, but acidic soils more prone to include this h...

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Common Name:- Eucalyptus Gumtree scale
P_eucalyptusgumscale Eucalyptus Gumtree scale is a sap sucking insect that may have already been introduced to the UK. The female is attached on the stem and the male can move and fly. They infest all parts of the tree and cluster together in colonies. Ants are common...
Caused by:- Scale insect Eriococcus coriaceus
Control:- In other countries Biological control has proved somewhat successfu...

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Common Name:- Eucalyptus Psyllid
P_eucalyptusphylid This Eucalyptus Psyllid is commonly known as the psyllid. It is a yellowish sap sucking insect which has recently been introduce to Europe and the UK. The adults lay their yellow eggs on the tips of young shoots in the Spring. Both nymphal stage a...
Caused by:- The insect Ctenarytaina eucalypti
Control:- Spraying is a possibility on small trees, but with the fast growth ...

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Common Name:- Euonymus Gall
P_crowngall This disease is caused by the same bacteria that causes Crown Gall. It is characterized by the growth of galls (tumor-like swellings) on roots and/or stems. Over 600 species of plants are susceptible to crown gall. The galls are usually rounded wi...
Caused by:- The Bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Control:- As the bacteria causing this disease is the same as that causing cr...

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Common Name:- Euonymus Mussel Scale
P_euonymusscale1 Adult euonymus scale insects appear as small white or brown, immobile spots on stems and leaves.
The males males about 2mm long and females about 4mm oval and brown. The adults have wings and can fly to mate and infect other plants. The ins...
Caused by:- Unaspis euonymi
Control:- These insects are difficult to eradicate because their waxy coverin...

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Common Name:- European Canker
P_nectriacanker2 The fungus in the advance stages. This fungal species is a frequent cause of cankers in apple, pear, beech and other trees. It produces cankers in the wood of branches and trunks and severe attacks can result in the loss of a branch or the death o...
Caused by:- The Fungus Nectria galligena
Control:- Eradication of this fungi is almost impossible as the spores are al...

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Common Name:- European Gooseberry Mildew
P_eurogsbrymldew There are two mildew that affects gooseberries and related plants as well as Botritis fungus. One is the European(Microsphaera grossulariae) and the other is the American(Sphaerotheca mors-uvae). European Gooseberry Mildew is not considered as a s...
Caused by:- The Fungus Microsphaera grossulariae
Control:- This fungus is encouraged by stagnant air around the branches and b...

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F
Common Name:- Fairy Rings
P_lnfryrng Fairy Rings are also known as fairy circle, elf circle, elf ring or pixie ring and also occupy a prominent place in European folklore as the location of gateways into elfin kingdoms, or places where elves gather and dance. It is a naturally occur...
Caused by:- Various Fungi
Control:- Fairy rings are rarely fatal to lawns.<br /> If fairy rings are no...

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Common Name:- Fasciation
P_fasciation Fasciation is a malformation in plant shoots, roots or flower tips where the growth tend to be thick and flattened. It occurs when something goes wrong with the cells at the growing tips of plants. Instead of growing normally the growing tip sprea...
Caused by:- It has many Causes
Control:- No action is necessary, but if the growth is spoiling a plant it ca...

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Common Name:- Felt Gall Mites
P_feltgallmite Felt Gall Mites is caused by several mites, such as Aceria pseudoplatani which usually attacks Sycamore leaves, that causes Felt Gall. After biting the leaves the mites secrete a substance which causes the leaves to develop fine hairs which are us...
Caused by:- Many Genus and species of Mites
Control:- As the damage to the leaves are caused when the mites bites the lea...

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Common Name:- Figworth Weevils
P_figwortweevil The figwort weevil adults often looks like bird droppings from afar and has a brown/black body and a grey haired head and thorax and about 5mm long. There are one or two velvety black spots on the wing-cases, one in front of the other in the middl...
Caused by:- Various species of Cionus Beetles
Control:- Spraying with a knock down insecticide and a systemic insecticide f...

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Common Name:- Fireblight
P_fireblight Fireblight is a serious disease of the Rosaceae family Which includes apples, Pears and Hawthorn. It was introduce to Eurrope from America in the 1950s. It is a notifyable disease under the EC Plant Health Directive. The symptoms include wilting ...
Caused by:- The Bacteria Erwinia amylovora
Control:- The cause of this disease is a bacterium(Erwinia amylovora) which i...

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Common Name:- Flatworms
P_flatworms There are many genus and species of flatworm native to the British Isle. Many are water living and mostly small. Some live in the soil, but do not cause any damage to plants. Some even attack slugs and other undesirables. Unfortunately two types O...
Caused by:- Various Genus and species.
Control:- It is difficult to eradicate These two New Zealand species when the...

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Common Name:- Flea Beetles
P_fleabeetle There are many types of Flea beetles which are small beetles that jump when disturbed. Some are more specific to certain plants, but do attack other plants as well. They damage crop by chewing holes in the leaves usually from the top. They attack ...
Caused by:- Various genus and species of small beetles
Control:- Keeping the growing conditions as good as possible as stressed plan...

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Common Name:- Fomes Fungi
P_fomesfungi This name is another name for the FOMES FUNGI. There are several species of Fomes fungi which attack a variety of trees. from Apple to Pine trees, and causing fungal fruiti...
Caused by:- Several species of Fomes Fungi
Control:- There is little that can be done except pruning out the infected br...

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Common Name:- Forsythia Gall
P_forsythiagall Crown Gall(Agrobacterium tumefaciens) can cause galls on Forsythia as well as the fungus Phomopsis species.
Phomopsis species galls are light brown and irregularly shaped with a bumpy, rough texture. The galls range in size from 5mm to 30mm...
Caused by:- The Fungus of Pomopsis Species
Control:- There are no chemical controls for Phomopsis canker or gall.<br /> ...

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Common Name:- Foxes
P_foxes Foxes are increasingly entering gardens and setting up home, especially if there is some shelter where there is soft sandy soil or if there is a bank where they can dig into to create a den. The damage they do is often horrendous. The other damage...
Caused by:- The fox Vulpes vulpes
Control:- They are some propriety scents that can repel most foxes, but these...

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Common Name:- Frost
P_frost Frost is one of the gardeners best friend, unfortunately if you do not plan properly it can also be one of the gardeners worst nightmares. Frost forms when the temperature for whatever reason falls below 0 degrees Centigrade. Whether friend or fo...
Caused by:- Temperatures below 0 degrees Centigrade
Control:- There are many things that can be done to protect tender plants. On...

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Common Name:- Fuchsia Rust
P_fuchsiarust Fuchsia rust is a fungus disease that spreads by airborne spores and need other genus such as Abies (fir) and willowherbs (Epilobium spp.) to complete its life cycle. Fuchsia is related to willowherb and will be affected by the fungus as well. Th...
Caused by:- The Fungus Pucciniastrum epilobii
Control:- In the European Community the products permitted under organic regi...

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Common Name:- Fungus
P_fungus There are well over 1 million known fungi and every part of this world has some fungus that is native or common to that area. Also every living thing including fungi are is predated upon or affected by other fungi.
Fungi are members of a la...
Caused by:- Various fungi
Control:- There are several ways Fungi can be erridacated such as fungicides,...

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Common Name:- Fungus Gnats
P_fungusgnats Fungus gnats are small black flies(around 2mm), which are also known as Sciarid Flies or mushroom flies.They are a common pest on or near the surface compost of houseplants. They run o...
Caused by:- Many Genus and species of the Order Diptera
Control:- Allow the surface of composts to dry out a little before watering t...

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Common Name:- Fusarium Bulb Rot
P_fusariumbulbrot Fusarium bulb rot is caused by several species of Fusarium fungi which can live in the soil for years. It causes rot in many kinds of bulbs including Gladioli, Garlic, Onion, Daffodils and many more. The Symptoms and species of fungi tend to vary ...
Caused by:- Several species of Fusarium fungi.
Control:- One way to reduce the incidence of Fusarium bulb rot is to wash the...

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Common Name:- Fusarium Wilt
P_dianthusfuswilt Fusarium wilt disease is caused by many fusarium species living in the soil. Some of the Fusarium species like fusarium oxysporum has many special forms (f.sp.) which tend to mainly, but not exclusively, attack specific solanaceous plants like the...
Caused by:- Several species of Fusarium fungi.
Control:- Because Fusarium fungi are widespread and persist for several years...

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