Glossary Entries




From T-BUDDING To VISCIDIUM   


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Name Origin Description Extra
T
T-BUDDING
n [O.E. t,t; budde, bud]
A special grafting technique in which the scion piece is reduced to a single bud. See GRAFTING)
TAP ROOT
n [M.E. tappe, short pipe; A.S. wyrt, root]
The primary, downwardgrowing root of a plant (especially a tree) also applied loosely to any strong, downward-growing root.
TASSEL
n [O.F. tasel, a clasp]
An inflorescence of male flowers in maize plants.
TAXIS
n [Gk. taxis, arrangement]
Taxis a free movement or activity of a cell or an organism towards(positive) or away(negative) from a stimulus. cf.[KENESIS]
TAXON
n [Gk. taxis, arrangement]
A group of living organism of any rank applied to groups of plants or entities that share distinc, defined characters.
TELEMORPH
n [Gk. tele, far;morphosis, shaping]
In fungus the part of the life cycle where the sexual spores( ascospores, or basidiospores) are produced.
TELEOMORPH
n [Gk. teleos, end; morphe, form]
In the naming of sexual and non-sexual states of the fungi, it is the part of the life cycle that produces sexual spores. Where both sexual and asexual phases exists the teleomorph phase takes precedence. cf. ANAMORPH
TELIOSPORE
n [Gk. telos, end; sporos, seed]
In rust fungi, it is the spores that are produced to overwinter or having a resting stage.
TELIUM
n [Gk. telos, end]
A group of spore producing cells(sorus), produced by rust fungi, on the leaves of plants.
TENACIOUS
a [L. tenax, tenac (from tenare to hold]
Not relinquishing something, keeping a firm hold; To persist in existing.
TENDER
a [L. tener, delicate]
Of plants that are vulnerable to frost damage.
TENDRIL
n [O.Fr. tendrillon, tender sprig]
A modified leaf, branch, or stem, usually filiform (long and slender) and capable of attaching itself to a support. (See also CLIMBER.) Image /leafshapes/21
TENERAL
a [L. tener, tender]
The immature stage of an insect after it has emerged from its nymphal exoskeleton or integument. The insect may change colour at this stage.
TEPAL
n [Fr. tepale, from petale]
A single segment of a perianth that cannot be distinguished either as a sepal or petal, as in Crocus or Lilium. (See also Perianth segment.)
TERMINAL
a [L. terminus, end]
Situated at the apex of a stem or branch usually refers to a bud or flower.
TERMINAL BUD
n [L. terminus, end; O.E. budde, bud]
The bud at the end of a stem or flower spike. See BUD.
TERNATE
a [L. terni, three each]
(of leaves) Compound, divided into three parts more or less equally. Each part may itself be further sub-divided.
TERRARIUM
n [L. terra, earth; aquarium, of water]
An enclosed container made of glass or plastic in which plants are grown.
TERRESTRIAL
a [L. terra, earth]
Growing in the soil a land plant. (Cf. EPIPHYTE, AQUATIC.)
TESSELLATED
a [L. tessella, small stone cube]
(of leaves) Marked with a fine chequered pattern, like a mosaic.
TESTA
n [L. testa, shell]
The outer protective covering of a seed.
THALLUS
n [Gk. thallos, young shoot]
A type of plant body that is not differentiated into root, stem or leaf.
THATCH
n [O.E. theccan, cover]
A layer of dead, organic matter intermingled with living stems that accumulates on the soil surface in lawns.
THECA
n [Gk. theke, case]
One half of an anther containing two pollen sacs.
THIN
a [O.E. thynne, thin]
(of soil) Used loosely of poor soil, prone to capping and drought.
THINNING
a [O.E. thynne, thin]
The removal of seedlings, shoots, flowers, or fruit buds to improve the growth and quality of the remainder.
THORAX
n [Gk. thorax, chest]
In higher invertebrates the part of the body between the neck and the abdomen which carries the lungs and the heart. In insects it is the middle section of the body, which carries the legs.
THREE-NUMBERED
a [L. tres, tree; numerus, several]
(ALSO FOUR-NUMBERED, ETC.) In terms of leaves, having three small leaves on one common petiole (with only three leaves, pinnately divided and digitate can barely be differentiated). In terms of flowers, having three of all organs, for example trisepalous, tripetalous, six stamens, and a trilocular ovary., Although stamens often grow in doubled numbers, the ovary usually does not.
THRESHOLD
n [O.E. threscold, first element]
The plinth at a doorway. The level at which something starts or end. The level of stimulus at which something is perceptible or acceptable.
THROAT
n [O,E. throte, throat]
The site in a calyx or corolla of united parts where the tube and limbs meet.
THYRSE
n [Gk. thyrsos, wand]
A dense, paniclelike flower cluster, like the lilac, in which the lateral branches terminate in cymes. Image /flowerinfos/25?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TI-PLASMID
n [Gk. plasma, form]
A gall or tumer forming plasmid found in the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
TILLER
n [A.S. telgor a small branch]
a shoot arising from a rhizome or base of a plant as in grasses from ground level.
TILTH
a [O.E. tilian, strive for]
A fine, crumbly, surface layer of soil produced by cultivation.
TIP LAYERING
n [O.N. typpi, top; M.E. layer, mason]
Tip layering is similar to simple layering and happens naturally with plants such as black raspberry and trailing blackberries. The tip of a branch touches the ground and roots form. Tip layering simply mimics this natural process. See LAYERING
TIP PRUNE
a [O.E. typpi, top; O.Fr. prune, abreviate]
To cut back the growing tip of a shoot to encourage sideshoots or to remove damaged growth.
TISSUE
n [Fr. tissu, woven]
The fundamental structure of animals and plants organs which is made up of similar cells.
TISSUE CULTURE
a [Fr. tissu, woven; L. cultura, cultivation, colere, to till]
(of plants) The growing of plant tissue under sterile conditions in artificial media.
TOBAMOVIRUS
n [Sp. tobac, tobaco; Gk. musa, a muse; virus, a poison]
A Genus of viruses which contains the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, which infects members of the solanaceae family. There are four subgroups within this genus; the solanaceous, brassicas, cucurbits and malvaceous-infecting.
TOLERANCE
n [L. tolerare, to endure; antia, state or condition]
The ability of a plant to a disease, chemical or condition without a significant decrease in growth or yield. The amount of variation allowed in a dimension or the amount of chemical in a plant or substance.
TOMENTOSE
a [L. tomentum, stuffing]
Densely covered in short hairs.
TOP-DRESSING
a [O.E. topp, top; O.Fr. dresser, arrange]
I ) An application of soluble fertilizers, fresh soil, or compost to the soil surface around a plant or to lawns to replenish nutrients. 2) A decorative dressing applied to the soil surface around a plant.
TOPIARY
n [L. topiarius, ornimental gardener]
The art of clipping and training trees and shrubs into various, usually intricate, geometric or free shapes.
TOPSOIL
n [O.E. topp, top; L. solium, seat(ass. with ground)]
The uppermost, normally fertile, layer of soil.
TOROSE
a [L. torulus , dim. of torus]
referring to a cylindrical or ellipsoid body which is swollen and constricted at intervals along its length. alt[TORULOSE]
TORULOSE
a [L. torulus , dim. of torus]
referring to a cylindrical or ellipsoid body which is swollen and constricted at intervals along its length. alt[TOROSE]
TOXIC
a [Gk. toxikon, poison]
of a substance that is capable of causing injury if it enters the cells of the body.
TOXICANT
a [Gk. toxikon, poison]
The poisonous substance or agent in a chemical formulation or natural secretion.
TOXIN
a [Gk. toxikon, poison]
Any substance that is capable of causing injury if it enters the cells of the body.
TRACE ELEMENT
n [O.Fr. trais, trait; elementum, principle]
Chemicals that are in minute quantities in a substance or body. See MICRONUTRIENTS.
TRAILING CLIMBER
n [L. trahere, dragnet; O.E. climban, climb]
A climbing plant that grows over the ground or plants. See CLIMBER.
TRANSLOCATED
a [L. trans, across; locare, to place]
(of dissolved nutrients or weedkillers) Moving within the vascular system (conducting tissues) of a plant.
TRANSPIRATION
n [L. trans, across; spirare, to breathe]
The loss of water by evaporation from the leaves and stems of plants.
TRANSPLANTING
v [L. trans, across; plantare, to plant]
Moving a plant from one position to another.
TREE
n [M.E. tre, tree]
A woody, perennial plant usually with a well-defined trunk or stem with a head or crown of branches above, with few or no branches arising from the base..
TRENCH
n [L. truncare, maim]
A long narrow ditch. See DOUBLE DIGGING.
TRI-
prx [Gk. tries, tree]
A prefix meaning three.
TRIASSIC
a [Gk. tria, three; L. ic, forming adjective]
The Triassic is a geologic period from about 250 to 200 million years ago. It is the First period of the Mesozoic era before the Jurassic and the Cretaceous periods. The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich Von Alberti from the three distinct layers of rock formations, red beds, covered by chalk, then by black shales which are found throughout Germany and northwest Europe. cf.[JURASSIC, CRETACEOUS]
TRIBOLOID
a [Gk. tribolos, burr; eidos form]
Covered in pointed outgrowths like a burr. Prickly. alt[ECHINULATE]
TRICHOME
n [Gk. trichoma, growth of hair]
A hair-like outgrowth.
TRICOLPATE
a [Gk. tries, tree; kalpos, fold]
(of pollen) Having three colpi.
TRIFOLIOLATE
a [L. tres, tree; folium, leaf]
(of leaves) Having three leaflets. Image /leafshapes/47?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TRIPINNATE
a [L. tres, three; pinna, feather]
These compound leaves are pinnately divided three times before the leaflets (pinna) appear. Image /leafshapes/88?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TRUE
a [O.E. treowe, steadfast]
(True-breeding) Of plants that when self-pollinated give rise to offspring similar to their parents. (see SELFPOLLINATION)
TRUNCATE
a [L. truncatus, to cut off]
(of leaves) The end of the leaves appear blunt or truncated. Image /leafshapes/67?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TRUNK
n [L. truncus, stem of a tree]
The thickened, woody, main stem of a tree.
TRUSS
n [O.Fr. trusse, pack up]
A compact cluster of flowers or fruits.
TUBE
n [L.tubus, tube]
The united, usually cylindrical part of the calyx or corolla made up of united parts. cf LIMB.
TUBER
n [L. tuber, hump]
A swollen, usually underground, organ derived from a stem or root, used for food storage.
TUFA
n [It. a variation of tufo]
A porous limestone rock that absorbs and retains moisture used for cultivating alpine plants difficult to grow in garden soil.
TUNIC
n [L. tunica, coating]
The fibrous membranes or papery outer skin of bulbs or corms.
TUNICATE
a [L. tunica, a coating]
Enclosed in a tunic.
TURION
n [L. turia, shoot]
1) A detached, ovenwintering. usually fleshy, bud produced by certain water plants. 2) A term sometimes applied to an adventitious shoot or sucker. A short, scaly branch produced from a rhizome.
TWINING CLIMBER
n [O. E. twin, thread, climban, climb]
A climbing plant that climbs by wrapping itself around other plants or obstacles. See CLIMBER.
U
U CORDON
a [L. u,u; chorda, cord]
A double cordon.
UMBEL
n [L. umbella, shade]
An umbrella-shaped inflorescence with all the stalks (pedicels) arising from the top of the stalk. Umbels are sometimes compound, with all the stalks producing umbels. See Umbel (Compound). Image /flowerinfos/7?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
UMBEL (COMPOUND)
n [L. umbella, shade]
An umbrella-shaped inflorescence with all the stalks (pedicles) arising from the top of the stem. At the end of each new stalk a new umbrella-shaped inflorescence also appears. See Umbel. Image /fowerinfos/22
UNDERPLANTING
v [O.E. under, beneath; L. planta, sole of foot]
Low-growing plants planted beneath larger plants.
UNDERSHRUB
n [O.E. under, beneath; M.E. shrubbe, bushwood]
A perennial plant with lower woody parts, but herbaceous upper parts that die back seasonally.
UNDERSTORY
n [O.E. under, beneath; L. historia, story]
A layer of shrubs, usually in deciduous woodland or tropical rain forests. Undulate (of leaves) With wavy margins.
UNDULATE
a [L. undosus, billowy]
(of leaves) The edges are wavy up and down. Image /leafshapes/43?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
UNIFOLIOLATE
a [L. unus, one; folium, leaf]
With a single leaflet that has a stalk distinct from the stalk of the whole leaf. Image /leafshapes/48?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
UNILOCULAR
a [L. unus, one; loculus, compartment]
(of ovaries) Containing one chamber (locule) in which the ovules or seeds occur.
UNION
n [ L. unus, one]
The jiont between a graft. See GRAFT UNION
UNISERIATE
a [L. unus, one, serere, to put in a row]
Arranged in a single row, series or layer, eg perianth-segments.
UNISEXUAL
a [L. unus, one; sexus, sex]
A flower with the reproductive organs of only one gender. (Most flowers have both a stamen, the male reproductive organ, and an ovary, the female reproductive organs, which makes them hermaphroditic.
UPRIGHT TERM
a [O.E, upriht, vertical; L. treminus, end]
describing the habit a plant with vertical or semi-vertical main branches. (Cf. FASTIGIATE.)
URN-SHAPED
a [L. urna, jar; Gmc. sceppan, create]
(of flowers). Globose to cylindrical in shape with a somewhat constricted mouth U-shaped.
UTRICLE
n [L. utriculus, small bag]
A small bladder-like, single-seeded dry fruit.
V
VACUOLE
n [L. vacuus, empty]
One of the spaces in a cell cytoplasm that appears empty or clear, but contains air, water, food and other materials.
VALVATE
a [L. valva, fold]
(of perianth-segments) With the margins adjacent without overlapping cf IMBRICATE.
VARIABLE
n [L. variare, to change]
Varying in character from the type particularly of seed-raised plants that vary in character from the parent.
VARIEGATED
a [L. variegare, to make various]
Marked with various colours in an irregular pattern: particularly used for leaves patterned with white and yellow markings but not confined to these colours.
VARIETY
n [ varietas, variety]
1) Botanically, a natural occurring variant (varietas - var. of a wild species, between the rank of subspecies and,forma. 2) Also commonly but imprecisely used to describe any variant of a plant. Cf. CULTIVAR.
VASCULAR
a [L. vasculum, small vessel]
Pertains to conductive tissues like Phloem, xylem, arteries or veins thet is concerned with the transport of fluids.
VASCULAR BUNDLE
n [L. vasculum, small vessel; O.E. byundelle, a binding]
A strand of tissue involved in water and food transport.
VASCULAR POSSESSING VESSELS
a [L. vasculum, small vessel; procession, proceed ; vascellum, dim of vas, vessel]
A vessel that is able to conduct water and nutrients.
VEGETATIVE GROWTH
a [L. vegetare, to enliven; O. E. growan, grass]
Non-flowering usually leafy growth.
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
v [L. vegetare, to enliven]
The increase of plants by asexual methods normally resulting in genetically identical individuals. for example: grafting or ofshoot propagation.
VEIN
n [L. vena, vein]
Any of the visible strands of conducting and strengthening tissues running through a leaf.
VENATION
a [L. vena, vein]
The arrangement of the veins of a leaf.
VENTRAL
a [L.venter, belly]
On the lower side.
VERMICULITE
n [L. vermis, worm]
A lightweight, minerial allowing good water retention and aeration when used in cutting compost and other potting media.
VERNATION
a [vernatio, sloughing]
(of leaves) The manner and pattern of arrangement within the bud.
VERNATION
n [L. vernatio, sloughing]
The arrangement of leaves in the bud. Often called vernus spring. It importance lies in the fact that in general the same mode of vernation(Involute, Circinate, Convolute etc.) is usually common in whole tribes or orders. It is to the flower-bud what aestivation(aestivus of summer) is to the flower-bud. cf.[AESTIVATION]
VERTICILLASTER
n [L. verticillus, small whorl; aster, star]
A much condensed cyme with the appearance of a whorl, but in reality arising in the axils of opposite leaves. Image /flowerinfos/26?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
VESSELS
n [L. vascellum, dim of vvas, vessel]
Tube-like cells arranged end to end in the wood of flowering plants and which form the principal pathway in the transport of water and mineral salts.
VIRULENCE
n [L. virus,poison; ulentus, used to form adj.]
The degree of ability to cause a disease or the degree of extreme hostility; antagonistic behaviour; hatefulness; spitefulness; venomousity; rancor.
VIRULENT
a [L. virus,poison; ulentus, used to form adj.
Easily causing a disease; being pathogenitic. Extremely hostile or antagonistic; hateful; spiteful; venomous; rancorous.
VIRULIFEROUS
a [L. virus,poison; O.E. lif, to,live; L. osus, full of]
Carrying or containing a virus. e;g; veriliferous aphids.
VIRUSES
n [L. virus, poisonous liquid]
An ultra small intracellular parasite that can only be seen under an electron microscope. They have DNA covered in a protein coat and uses the cell to reproduce its DNA to replicate. itself. Infection is either persistant(being able to be transmitted by insects or agents) or non-persistant(not being able to be transmitted by insects or vectors). Viruses usually stunts a plant or creat various colours or growths in plants. Many viruses are important diseases in animals like the influenza viruses. All living things can be infected by viruses as they are so small. Image http://www.dpvweb.net/intro/index.php
VISCIDIUM
n [l.viscum, mistletoe]
In orchids flowers, a sticky disc at the end of the stalk of the pollinium, Which getys attaches to a pollinating insect.

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