Glossary Entries




From PACKS To SYSTEMIC   


Start at :- Q, R, S, Go to End of Page


Name Origin Description Extra
P
PACKS
n [Ger. pak, pack]
Compartmented trays in which individual seed or seedlings are grown.
PALMATE
a [L. palma, palm]
(of leaves) With more than three segments or leaflets arising from a single point, as in the fingers of a hand Image /leafshapes/46?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PALMATELY CLEFT
a [L. palma, palm; A.S. cleofan, to cut]
Incompletely separated lobes that start from the midrib Image /leafshapes/111?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PALMATELY LOBED
a [L. palma, palm; Gk. lobos, lobe]
Divided lobes that are not completely separated. If the lobes start from one point, the leaf is digitate or palmately lobed, like a maple leaf. If the lobes start from the midrib, the leaf is palmately cleft (see PALMATELY CLEFT). Image /leafshapes/111?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PAN
n [Gk. pan, all]
1) A shallow earthenware or plastic pot that is much wider than it is deep. 2) A layer of soil that is impermeable to water or oxygen and impedes root growth and drainage. Some pans (hardpans) occur naturally on clay or iron-rich soils. Soil capping (see CAPPING) any heavy rain or excess watering, or continoul use of cultivation machinery are also known as pans or hardpans.
PANICLE
n [L. panicula, tuft]
A multiple branched inflorescence. The grape is actually a grape panicle. Loosely describing a branching inflorescences. Image /flowerinfos/3?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PANICULATE
a [L. panicula, tuft]
Arranged in a panicle.
PARALLEL
a [Gk. para, beside; allelos, one another]
(of leaves) The venation run parallel along the length of the leaf as in most monocotlydon plants. Image /leafshapes/50?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PARASITE
n [Gk. parasitos, from para, beside, sitos, food]
A plant that obtains its food from another living plant to which it is attached.
PARASTAMEN
n [Gk. para, beside; stemon, thread]
A rudementary modified stamen, usually sterile. alt. STAMINODE.
PARENCHYMA
n [Gk. para, beside; enchyma, infusion]
Tissue made up of thin-walled living photosynthetic or storage cells which is capable of division even when mature.
PARIETAL PLACENTATION
a [L. partialis, partial; placenta, flat cake]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne on placentas on the inner surface of the outer wall of the ovary.
PARIPINNATE
a [L. par, equal; pinna wing]
A pinnate leaf with all leaflets in pairs cf. IMPARIPINNATE.
PARTERRE
n [Fr. par terre, on the ground]
A level area containing ornamental beds often with low growing pants and enclosed by dwarf hedges.(Cf. KNOT-GARDEN).
PARTHENOCARPIC
n [Gk. parthenos, virgin, genisis, descent]
The production of fruit without fertilization having taken place.
PATHOGENS
n [Gk. pathos, suffering; genes, producing]
Micro-organisms that cause disease.
PATHOVAR (PVAR .)
n [Gk. pathos, suffering; L. variare, to change]
A subdivision of several bacterial species.
PEAT
n [M.E. pete, peat]
Partially decayed humus rich vegetation formed on the surface of waterlogged soils Moss or Sphagnum peat is largely derived from partially decayed sphagnum moss and is used in potting composts Sedge peat is derived from sedges, mosses and heathers: it is coarser than moss peat, and is less suitable for potting composts.
PEAT BLOCKS
n [M.E. pete, peat; O.Fr. blok, block]
Blocks of peat cut from naturally occurring peat deposits.
PEAT SUBSTITUTE
n [M.E. pete, peat; L. substitut, to put in place of]
A term applied to a number of different organic materials such as coconut fibre-used in place peat for potting composts and soil improvers.
PECTINATE
a [L. pecten, comb]
(of leaves) The leaves resembles the tooth of a comb like some conifers. Image /leafshapes/95?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PEDATE
a [L.pes, foot]
(of leaves) A palmately divided compound leaf, having three main divisions, and having the outer division one or more times. There may be a free central leaflet. Pedicel The stalk of a single flower.
PEDICEL
n [L. pediculus, small foot]
A short stalk below the calyx. Image /flowerinfos/14?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PEDUNCLE
n [L.L. pedunulus, small foot]
The stalk of a flower. Image /flowerinfos/3?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PELTATE
n [Gk. pelte, shield]
A leaf with the stalk attached beneath leaf bladee instead of from its base on the margin of the leaf, as is the case with the nasturtium. Image /leafshapes/4?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PENDULOUS
a [L. pendere, to hang]
Hanging down.
PERENNATING
a [L. per, through; annus, year]
Living over from season to season.
PERENNIAL
a [L. per, through; annus, year]
A plant that persists for more than two years and normally flowers annually.
PERFECT FLOWER
a [L. perfectus, finished; flos, flower]
A flower with functional male and female organs.
PERFOLIATE
a [L. per, through; folium, leaf]
(of leaves) The basal lobes of the leaves are joined so that the stem appears to go straight through the leaf. Image /leafshapes/83?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PERIANTH
n [Gk. peri, around; anthos, flower]
The outer whorl of floral leaves of a flower; basically the calyx and the corolla, particularly when they are very similar in form, as in many bulb flowers. The floral envelope whose segments are usually divisible into an outer whorl (calyx) of sepals, and an inner whorl (corolla) of petals. The segments of either or both whorls may fuse to form a tube. Image /flowerinfos/29?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PERIANTH SEGMENT
n [Gk. peri, aroung; anthos, flower; segmentum, piece]
One portion of a perianth, usually resembling a petal and sometimes known as a tepal.
PERICARP
a [Gk. peri, around; karpos, fruit]
The wall of a fruit that encloses the seeds and which develops from the ovary wall.
PERIGYNOUS
a [Gk. peri, around; gyne, female]
(of flowers) Having the stamens, corolla and calyx inserted around the ovary, their bases often forming a disk.
PERISPERM
n [Gk. peri, around; sperm, seed]
The nutritive storage tissue in some seeds, derived from the nucellus.
PERITHECIUM
n [Gk. peri, around; theke, case]
A small flask-shaped fruiting body of ascomycetous fungi containing ascospores.
PERLITE
n [Fr. perle, pearle]
Small granules of expanded, volcanic minerals added to growing media to improve aeration.
PERPETUAL
a [L. perpetuus, continuing throughout]
Of plants that bloom more 'or less continuously throughout the growing season or over long periods of time.
PERSISTENT
a [L. persistere, to persevere]
Remaining attached, not falling off.
PESTICIDE
n [L. pestis, plague; cidium, kill]
A chemical substance, usually manufactured, that is used to kill pests including insects (insecticide), mites (acaricide), and nematodes (nematicide).
PETAL
n [Gk. petalon, leaf]
One of the modified leaves of the corolla of a flower, often strikingly colored (Cf. Tepal.) Image /flowerinfos/8?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PETALOID
a [Gk. petalon, leaf]
Petal-like.
PETIOLATE
a [L. petiolus, small foot]
(of leaves) The basal lobes of the leaves are joined so that the stem appears to go straight through the leaf. Image /leafshapes/84?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PETIOLE
n [L. petiolus, small foot]
The main stem of a leaf.
PHIALIDE
n [Gk. phialis, a broad, flat vessel]
A flask-shaped projection from the mycelium of certain fungi from which conidispores are produced in a chain like fashion.
PHLOEM
n [Gk. phloios, inner bark]
That part of the tissue of a plant which is concerned with conducting food material. In woody stems it is the innermost layer of the bark cf. XYLEM.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
n [Gk. phos, light, synthesis, putting together]
The production of organic compounds required for growth in plants by a complex process )involving chlorophyll, light energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
PHYLLARY
n [Gk. phyllon, leaf]
A bract of the involucre of a compositae. See BRACT.
PHYLLODE
n [Gk. phyllon, leaf; edios, form]
A flattened leaf stalk (petiole) which has assumed the form and function of a leaf blade.
PICOTEE
n [Fr. picote, mark with points]
A term describing petals with narrow margin of a contrasting colour.
PINCHING OUT
v [O.Fr. pincier, to pinch; O.E. ut, out]
The removal of the wing tip of a plant (by finger and thumb) to induce the production of -shoots or the formation of flowers. Also known as "stopping".
PINNA
n [L. pinna, feather]
The part of a pinnately divided leaf that branches off the midrib it can be a pinnule or a lateral shoot of the first order Image /leafshapes/109?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATE
a [L. pinnatus, feathered]
(of leaves) Compound, with leaflets in pairs on opposite sides of the midrib cf imparipinnate and paripinnate. Image /leafshapes/51?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATELY DIVIDED
a [L. pinna, feather; dividere, to divide]
Divided leaves with a stem-like midrib and lateral ribs or small leaflets arranged opposite each other
PINNATELY LOBED
a [L. pinna, feather; dividere, to divide;Gk. lobos, lobe]
The leaves are lobed with three or more lobes arranged like a pinnate leaf, but with the lobing not reaching the midrib. Image /leafshapes/33?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATIFID
a [L. pinna, feather; findere, to cleave]
(of leaves) The leaves are split or lobed to the midrib in a feather-like manner. Image /leafshapes/91?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATISECT
a [L. pinna, feathered; secta, sect]
(of leaves) pinnately divided, but not as far as the midrib. Image /leafshapes/34?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PISTIL
n [L. pistillum, pestle]
The female reproductive organ of the flower that starts from the ovary and continues through to the stigma. See CARPEL. Image /flowerinfos/16?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PISTILLATE
a [L. pistillum, pestle]
A flower that has only female organs.
PISTILLODE
n [L. pistillum, pestle; Gk. ediod, form]
A sterile, often reduced pistil.
PITH
n [A.S. pitha, pith]
(of stems). The soft plant tissue in the central part of a stem.
PLACENTA
n [L. placenta, flat cake]
Part of the ovary wall to which the ovules are attached.
PLACENTATION
a [L. placenta, flat cake]
The arrangement and distribution of the ovule-bearing placentas within the ovary: cf axile, basal, free central, marginal and parietal.
PLASMID
n [Gk. plasma, form]
A nucleic acid element, such as mitochondria, which is capable of reproduction and found in the cytoplasm of bacteria cells.
PLEACHING
a [O.Fr. plassier, entwined]
A technique whereby branches from a row of trees are woven together and trained to form a wall or canopy of foliage.
PLEROTIC
a [Gk. pleroun, to fill]
Completely filling a space. Usually applied to oospores filling the oogonium. cf. APLEROTIC
PLEURIDS
n [Gk. pleura, side. idios, distinct]
In orchids a pair of water glands known as pleurids which are located usually on the column near where the claw connects to the ovary. These drip water into the bucket of the lip.
PLICATE
a[L. plicare, to fold]
Of leaves folded multiple time lengthwise into parallel ridges, like a fan; corrugated like the pleats of cloth. Image leafshapes/113?ordr=1&telephone=5
PLUMOSE
a [L. pluma, feather]
Feather like.
PLUMULE
n [L. plumula, small feather]
The rudimentary shoot in an embryo. See HYPOGEAL..
PLUNGE
v [L. plumbum, lead plummet]
To sink a pot up to its rim bed of ashes, peat, sand, or to protect the roots of the plant or plants in the pot from extremes of temperature.
POD
n [M.E. pod, bag]
An ill-defined term generally applied to any dry, dehiscent fruit it is particularly used for peas and beans.
POLLARDING
v [M.E. pol, head; Ger. hard, hard]
The regular pruning back of the main branches of a tree to the to the main stem or trunk, or to a short branch framework, usually to a height bout 2m (6ft). (Cf. COPPICING.)
POLLEN
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
The male reproductive cells of a plant, formed in the anther. Image /flowerinfos/9?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
POLLEN SAC
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
The chamber (loculus) in an anther where the pollen is formed. Image /flowerinfos/37?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
POLLINATION
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
The transfer of pollen from anthers to stigmas. (See also CROSS-POLLINATION, OPEN-POLLINATION and SELF-POLLINATION.)
POLLINATOR
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
1) The agent or means by which pollination is carried out (e.g. insects, wind). 2) Used in fruit growing to describe a cultivar required to ensure fruit set on another self- or partially self-sterile cultivar.
POLLINIUM
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
A mass of pollen grains produced by one anther-lobe, cohering together and transported as a single unit during pollination, as in the orchids.
POLYEMBRYONIC
a [Gk. polys, many; embryon, egg]
Containing more than one embryo in an ovule or seed.
POLYGAMODIOECIOUS
a [Gk. polys, nany; gamos, marriage]
Having male and bisexual flowers on one individual plant and female and bisexual flowers on another.
POLYGAMOUS
n [Gk. polys, many; gamos, marriage]
Having separate male, female and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
POLYPETALOUS
n [Gk. polys, maany, petalon, petals]
With petals free from each other.
POME FRUIT
n [L. pommum, apple; fructus, fruit]
A firm, fleshy fi-uit formed by the fusion of the ovary and the hypanthium (the fused base of calyx and corolla) for example an apple or pear.
POMPON
a [Fr. pompon, wollen ball]
Usually small, almost globular flowerheads made up of numerous florets.
PORE
n [Gk. poros, passage]
A small hole.
POTTING COMPOST
n [O.E. pott, container; L. compositer, someting put together]
(also potting mix or potting medium). A mixture of loam, peat substitute (or peat), sand, and nutrients in varying proportions Soilless composts contain no loam and mainly comprise peat with nutrients added.
POTTING ON
v [O.Fr. pot, storage onntainer; O.E. on, on]
Transferring a plant from one pot to a larger one.
POTTING UP
v [O.Fr. pot, storage container; O.E. uppe, up]
Transferring seedlings into individual pots of compost.
PRICKING OUT
v [O.E. pricca, prick; O.E. utian, out]
The transferring of young seedlings from where they have germinated in beds or containers to positions where they have room to grow on.
PROPAGATION
n [L. propagare, to propagate]
The increase of plants by seed (usually sexual) or vegetative (asexual) means.
PROPAGATOR
n [L. propagare, to propagate]
A structure that provides a humid atmosphere for raising seedlings, rooting cuttings, or other plants being propagated.
PROTANDROUS
a [Gk. protos, first; aner, male]
(of flowers) The maturing of stamens and the consequent release of their pollen before the stigmas of the same flower become receptive.
PROTOGYNOUS
a [Gk. Protos, first; gyne, woman]
(of flowers) The receptiveness of the stigmas before the stamens of the same flower mature and release their pollen.
PROXIMAL END
a [L. proximus, next; O.E. ende, end]
(of cuttings). The end that was originally nearest to the crown of the parent plant. (Cf DISTAL END.)
PRUNING
v [O.Fr. prigner, prune]
Trim by cutting away dead or unwanted or overgrown parts of a tree, shrub or plant.
PSEUDO-WHORLED
a [Gk. pseudos, falsehood; O.E. wharve, whorl of a spindle]
(of leaves) Arising close together and so appearing to arise at the same level, although not in fact doing so.
PSEUDOBULB
a [Gk. pseudos, falsehood; L. bulbus, globular root]
The thickened, bulb-like stem of a sympodial orchid arising from a (sometimes very short) rhizome. Quartered rosette. A rosetted flower with the petals arranged in four, more or less equal, sections.
PSEUDOCOPULATION
v [Gk. pseudos, falsehood; L. copula, bond]
The attempted copulation by male insect visitors with a part of a flower which resembles the female of the insect species, as in the orchids.
PUBESCENT
n [L. pubescere, to become mature]
Covered in soft, short hairs.
PUNCTATE
a [L. punctum, point]
Shallowly pitted or dotted, often with glands.
Q
QUIESCENCE
n [L. quiescere, to become still]
A temporary state of no growth of an organism due to unfavorable conditions. cf. [DIAPAUSE]
QUINATE
a [L. quini, five each]
Five leaflets growing from one point. alt[PALMATE] Image leafshapes/46?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
QUININE
n [Sp. quina, cinchona bark]
An Alkaloid produced in the bark of the cinchona tree and used as an anti-malarial drug and as a febrifuge(a fever reducer)
R
RACEME
n [L. racemus, bunch]
An indeterminate, unbranched inflorescence with a main stem and usually many stalked flowers.The apical growing point continues to be active so there is usually no terminal flower and the youngest branches or flowers are nearest the apex. This mode of growth is known as monopodial. Image /flowerinfos/2?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RACEMOSE
a [L. racemus, bunch]
Arranged like a raceme in general any inflorescence capable of indefinite prolongation, having lateral and axillary flowers.
RACHIS
n [Gk. rhachis, spine]
The main stalk or axis of a flower. The stalk of a pinnately compound leaf.
RADICLE
n [L. radix, root]
The rudimentary root in an embryo. Leaves arising from the base of a stem or from a rhizome basal.
RAIN SHADOW
n [O.E. regn, rain; scead, shield]
An area of ground next to a wall or fence that is sheltered from prevailing winds and therefore receives less rain than open ground.
RAMBLER
n [M.Du. rammelen, to wander]
A trailing climber.
RAPHE
n [Gk. raphe, seam]
A ridge or tissue visible on the testa of seeds developed from ovules which are bent over through 180 degrees (anatropous). It results from the fusion of the stalk (funicle) with the rest of the bent-over ovules.
RAY
n [L. radius, ray]
(of wood) Radial strands of living cells concerned with the transport of water and food.
RAY FLOWER
n [L. radius, ray; flos, flower]
(or floret). Small flower with a tubular corolla, as borne in the outermost ring of a Compositae flowerhead.
RECEPTACLE
n [L. recipere, to recieve]
Flat, concave or convex part of the stem from which all parts of a flower arise. The floral axis.
RECURVED
a [L. recurvus, bent back]
Applied to petals of flowers and florets that curve backwards.
REFLEXED
a [L. reflectere, to turn back]
Applied to petals of flowers and florets that bend sharply backwards at an angle of more than 90?. They are sometimes called fully reflexed. Also loosely applied to any flower in which the petals or perianth segments are recurved.
REGULAR
a [L. regula, rule]
(of flowers) Radially symmetrical, with more than one plane of symmetry actinomorphic.
REMONTANT
a [Fr. remont, comming up again]
Of a plant that flowers more than once during the growing season (often applied to roses and strawberries). (Cf NON-REMONTANT.)
RENEWAL PRUNING
v [L. re, again; O.E. niwe, new; O.Fr. prigner, prune]
A system in which the laterals are constantly cut back to be replaced by young laterals stimulated by pruning.
RENIFORM
a [L. ren, kidney; forma, shape]
(of leaves) The leaves are in the shape of a kidney or bean. Image /leafshapes/105?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RESPIRATION
n [L. respiratio, breathing]
The release of energy from complex organic molecules as a result of chemical changes.
RETICULATE
a [L. reticulatus, latticed]
Marked with a network pattern, usually of veins.
RETICULATE VENATION
a [L. reticulatus, latticed; vena, vein]
Lateral veins that branch off the midrib like the feathers of a bird. Most leaves show such venation
RETUSE
a [L. retusus, blunted]
(of leaves) The leaf tip s are blunted and obtuse with a small notch in the middle. Image /leafshapes/65?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
REVERT
v [L. reversio, turning back]
To return to an original state, for example when a variegated plant produces a plain green leaf.
RHACHIS
n [Gk. rachis, spine]
The major axis of an inflorescence.
RHIPIDIUM
n [Gk. rhipis, fan; idion, dim]
A cymose inflorescence with branches alternating from one side of the vertical axis to the other normally flattened in one plane and fanshaped. Image /flowerinfos/23?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RHIZOME
n [Gk. rhizoma, root]
A specialized, usually horizontally creeping, swollen or slender, underground stem that acts as a storage organ and produces aerial shoots at its apex and along its length.
RHOMBOIDAL
a [Gk. rhombus,rhombus, edios, form]
The leaves are in the shape of a rhombus or a skewed parrellelogram. Image /leafshapes/70?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RIB
n [A.S. ribb, rib]
Radiating branch on a fantrained tree.
RIND
n [A.S. rindle, bark]
The outer bark of a shrub or tree outside the cambium layer.
RIPEWOOD CUTTING
n [Gmc. in origin]
A cutting taken from ripened wood, usually of evergreens, during the growing season. See also: Cutting.
ROGUE
n [L. rogare, beg]
A somatic mutation. q.v. SPORT.
ROOT
n [A.S. wyrt, root]
The part of a plant, normally underground, that anchors it and through which water and nutrients are absorbed. (See also AERIAL ROOT.)
ROOT BALL
n [A.S. wyrt, root; O.N. bollr, ball]
The roots and accompanying soil or compost visible when a plant is removed from a container or lifted from the open ground.
ROOT CUTTING
n [A.S. wyrt, root]
A cutting taken from part of a semi-mature root. See also: Cutting.
ROOT RUN
n [A.S. wyrt, root; O.E. rinnan, run]
The area of soil into which a plant's roots may extend.
ROOTING
n [A.S. wyrt, root]
The production of roots, usually from cuttings.
ROOTING HORMONE
n [A.S. wyrt, root; Gk. hormaein, to excite]
A chemical compound synthesized in powder or liquid form and used at low concentrations to encourage root production.
ROOTSTOCK
n [A.S. wyrt, root; stocc, post]
A plant used to provide the root system for a grafted plant.
ROSE
n [L. rosa, rose]
(of a watering can). A perforated nozzle that diffuses and regulates the flow of water.
ROSETTE
n [L. rosa, rose]
1) A cluster of leaves radiating from approximately the same point, often borne at ground level at the base of a very short stem. 2) A more or less circular arrangement of petals. Image /leafshapes/99?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
ROSTELLUM
n [L. demunitive of rostrum]
In many orchids, a part of one of the three stigma lobes forms the rostellum. It is a flap of tissue that projects down in front of the anther separating the stigma and the anther. As the visiting insect backs out of the flower, it brushes the rostellum, which is covered with sticky stigmatic substance. The pollinia are then picked up from the anther and adhere to the body of the insect. The insect then flies to another flower which is then pollinated.
ROTATE
n [L. rota, wheel]
(of corollas) Wheel-shaped with the petals or lobes spreading out from the axis of a flower.
ROTATION
n [L. rota, wheel]
Changinging the crops grown in an area every season to prevent the build up of pests and deseases. See CROP ROTATION.
ROUNDED
a [L. rotundus, rotund]
Regularly curved, as in a circle.
RUMINATE
n [L. ruminatio, to chew the cud]
(of endosperm in seeds) Irregularly grooved and ridged having a chewed appearance.
RUNNER
n [A.S. rinnan, to run]
A horizontally spreading, usually slender, stem that runs above ground and roots at the nodes to form new plants. Often confused with stolon.
S
SADDLE GRAFTING
v [O.E. sadol, saddle; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
A mode of grafting in which a deep cleft is made in the end of the scion by two sloping cuts, and the end of the stock is made wedge-shaped to fit the cleft in the scion, which is placed upon it saddlewise. See GRAFTING.
SAGITTATE
a [L. sagitta, arrow]
of leaves) Shaped like an arrow head with two backward-directed barbs. Image /leafshapes/18?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SAMARA
n [L. samara, seed of elm]
A dry fruit that does not split open and has part of the fruit wall extended to form a flattened membrane or wing.
SAP
n [O.E. saep, sap]
The juice of a plant contained in the cells and vascular tissue. Sapling. A young tree a seedling or any young tree before the wood hardens.
SAPONINS
n [L. sapo, soap]
A toxic, soap-like group of compounds which is present in many plants.
SAPROPHYTE
n [Gk. sapros, rotten; phyton, plant]
A plant that cannot live on its own, but which needs decaying organic material as a source of nutrition.
SCALE
n [A.S. sceala, shell]
A small, often membranous, reduced leaf frequently found covering buds and bulbs.
SCALE-LIKE
a [A.S. sceala, shell; O.N. likr, like]]
Having leaves that are flattened and closely attached to the stem like the Juniperus chinensis and other connifer trees. Image /leafshapes/30?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SCALED
a [A.S. scaela, husk]
Covered by scale leaves.
SCANDENT
a [L. scandere, to climb]
Ascending or loosely climbing. (See also CLIMBER.)
SCAPE
a [Gk. scapos, stalk]
A leafless flower-stalk.
SCARIFICATION
n [Gk. skariphasthai, scratch an outline]
1) Abrasion or chemical treatment of a seed coat in order to speed up water intake and induce germination. 2) Removing moss and thatch from a lawn using a scarifier or rake.
SCARIOUS
a [Fr. scarieux, mambranous]
Dry and membranous, with a dried-up appearance.
SCHIZOCARP
n [Gk. schizein, to cleave; karpos, fruit]
A fruit derived from a simple or compound ovary in which the locules separate at maturity to form single-seeded units.
SCHIZOMYCETES
n [Gk. schizein, to cleave; mykes, fungus]
Old alternative name for some bacteria when they are classified as plants. Alt.[SCHIZOMYCOPHYTA]
SCHIZOMYCOPHYTA
n [Gk. schizein, to cleave; phtyon, plant]
Old alternative name for some bacteria when they are grouped in the phyla Schizophyta]
SCION
n [fr. scion, shoot]
A shoot or bud cut from one plant to graft onto a rootstock (stock) of another.
SCLERENCHYMA
n [Gk. skleros, hard; engchyma, infusion]
Tissue with thickened cell walls, often woody (lignified), and which give mechanical strength and support.
SCORPIOID
a [Gk.skorpios, scorpion; edios, form]
(of cymose inflorescences) A monochasial, cymose inflorescence with branches alternating from one side of the vertical axis to the other normally curved to one side like a scorpion's tail. q.v. CINCINNUS. Image /flowerinfos/39?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SCRAMBLER
n [E. scamble, stumble; cramble, crawl]
A plant with a spreading, creeping habit usually anchored with the help of hooks, thorns or tendrils.
SCREE
n [O.N. skritha, landslip]
A slope comprising rock fragments formed by the weathering of rock faces: simulated in gardens as scree beds, in which high-altitude alpines that need excellent drainage may be grown.
SEDGE PEAT
n [O.E. secg, sedge; L. peta, peat]
bogs where peat has accumulated chiefly from decaying sedges, rushes and other aquatic emergent species in low lying lakes and swamps. See PEAT.
SEED
n [A.S. saed, seed]
The ripened fertilized ovule containing a dormant embryo capable of developing into an adult plant.
SEED DORMANCY
n [A.S. saed, deed; L. dormire, to sleep]
Seed dormancy in nature usually exists to delay germination until favorable environmental conditions are present for seed germination, growth and development. See DORMANCY.
SEED LEAF
n [A.S. Saed, seed; leaf, leaf]
A leaf of the embryo of a seed plant, which upon germination either remains in the seed or emerges, enlarges, and becomes green. See COTYLEDON.
SEEDHEAD
n [A.S. saed, seed; O.E. heafod, dead]
Any fruit that contains ripe seeds.
SEEDLING
n [A.S. seaed, seed]
A young plant that has developed from a seed.
SELECTION
n [L. seligere, choose]
A plant selected for particular characteristics and usually propagated to retain the same characteristics.
SELF LAYERING
n [O.E. self, self; layer, mason]
Where branches of plants touch the ground and root themselves to provide a new tree or plant. See LAYERING.
SELF-CLINGING CLIMBER
n [O.E. self, self; clingan, stick together; climban, climb]
there are only 5 self-clinging climbers; ivy, climbing hydrangea, Euonymus, the Trumpet Creeper and the Virginia Creeper. These plants will only have to be pointed into the right direction once. See CLIMBER.
SELF-FERTILE
a [O.E. self, self; L. fertilis, fertile]
Of a plant that produces viable seed when fertilized with its own pollen. (See also FERTILIZATION, POLLINATION, SELF-POLLINATION, and SELF-STERILE.)
SELF-INCOMPATIBLE
a [O.E. self, self; L. in, not; compatibilis, compatable]
A plant that is incapable of self-fertilization. See SELF-STERILE.
SELF-POLLINATION
v [O.E. of Gmc, origin; L. pollen, fine flour]
The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma of the same flower, or alternatively to another flower on the same plant. Cf. CROSS-POLLINATION, CROSS-FERTILIZATION, OPEN-POLLINATION, POLLINATION.
SELF-SEED
A [O.E. self, self; saed, seed]
To shed fertile seeds that produce seedlings around the parent plant.
SELF-STERILE
n [O.E. self, self; L. sterilis, barren]
A plant unable to produce viable seed after self-fertilization, and requiring a different pollinator in order for fertilization to occur. Also known as "self-incompatible" - incapable of self-fertilization.
SEMI-DECIDUOUS
a [L. semi, half; decidere, to fall down]
Describes a plant that retains most or some of its foliage throughout the year. See DECIDUOUS.
SEMI-DETERMINATE
a [L. semi, half; determinare, to limit]
Used of tall or cordon tomatoes that will only grow to 1-1.2m (3-4ft) long. (Cf. DETERNINATE, INTERDETERMINATE)
SEMI-DOUBLE
a [L. semi,half; duplus, two]
Having the outermost stamens converted into petals, while the inner ones remain perfect See FLOWER
SEMI-EVERGREEN
a [L. semi, half; O.E. aefre, ever; grenian, green]
A plant which is able to keep its leaves all year round under certain conditions but otherwise, would lose them. See Evergreen. Semi-ripe cutting. See CUTTING.
SEMI-PARASITE
n [L. semi, half; Gk. para, beside; sitos, food]
A plant which, although able to grow independently, is much more vigorous if it establishes a parasitic relationship on another plant.
SEMI-RIPE CUTTING
n [L. semi, half; O.E. ripe]
A cutting taken from half-ripened wood of the growing season. See also: Cutting.
SEPAL
n [L. separare, to separate ]
The outer whorl of the perianth of a flower, usually small and green, but sometimes coloured and petal-like. Image /flowerinfos/10?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SEPTATE
a [L. septum, partition]
(of ovaries) Divided into locules by walls.
SEPTICIDAL
a [L. septum, division; caedere, to cut]
(of fruits) splitting open longitudinally through the septa so that the carpels, are separated.
SEPTUM
n [L. septum, division]
(of ovaries) The wall between two chambers (locules) of an ovary made up of two or more fused carpels (syncarpous ovary).
SERIATE
a [L. serere, to put in a row]
Arranged in a row. Image /leafshapes/39?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SERPENTINE LAYERING
n [L. serpere, to creep; layer, mason]
Serpentine layering is like simple layering except more than one portion of the stem is alternately covered and exposed . Each portion is rooted like a simple layer. The stem may be notched at the lower portion for each layer. It is mainly used with climbers or trailing plants. See LAYERING.
SERRATED
a [L. serra, saw]
Formed like the teeth of a saw. Image /leafshapes/39?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SERRULATE
a [L. serra, saw]
(of margins) Finely toothed, like a saw. Image /leafshapes/40?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SESSILE
a [L. sedere, to sit]
Attached without a petiole. Image /leafshapes/85?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SET
a [L. secta, sect]
1) A small onion, shallot bulb, or potato tuber, selected for planting. 2) A term describing flowers that have been successfully fertilized and have produced small fruits.
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
n [L. sexus, sex; re, again; producere, to lead forth]
A form of reproduction involving fertilization. giwing rise to seed or spores.
SHALLOWLY LOBED
a [M.E.Shallow,shallow;Gk. lobos,lobed]
As the name says the leaves are shallowly lobed. Image /leafshapes/81?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SHEATH
n [A.S. sceth, shell or pod]
A protective covering. The base of a leaf or leafstalk (petiole) which encases the stem. Image /flowerinfos/36?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SHEET MULCH
n [O.E. scete, sheet; melse, mulch]
A mulch using an artificially produced material (e.g. plastic).
SHOOT
n [A.S. sceotan, to dart]
The above-ground portions of a vascular plant, such as the stems and leaves the part of a plant which develops from the plumule of the embryo. A branch, stem.
SHRUB
n [M. E. shrubbe, bushwood]
A woody-stemmed plant, usually branched from or near the base, lacking a single trunk.
SIDE GRAFTING
n [O.E. side, side; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
With side grafting you attach a branch to a trunk: when the graft has grown together with the trunk after a year, you can choose whether to cut the rest off and use the new branch as the new tree, or simply to leave it as an additional branch. See GRAFTING.
SIDE-WEDGE GRAFTING
n [O.E. side; wecg, wedge; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
This technique differs from the side veneer graft in that no tissue is removed from the rootstock. A thin flap consisting of rind and a thin silver of tissue remains attached to the base of the rootstock. On the scion two slightly sloping cuts are made, so that it can be matched and callused on two sides. See GRAFTING.
SIDESHOOT
n [O.E. side, side; A.S. sceotan, to dart]
A stem that arises from the side of a main shoot.
SILICOLE
n [l. silex, flint; cloere, to inhabit]]
A plant triving in markedlyu silceous soil, See CALCICOLE, CALCIFUGE.
SILICULE OR SILICULA
n [L. silicula, little pod]
A dry fruit that opens along two lines and has a central persistent partition it is as broad as, or broader, than it is long, as in the Cruciferae.
SIMPLE
a [L. simplus]
Mainly of leaves not divided or lobed in any way. See Compound.
SIMPLE LAYERING
n [L. simpulus, simple; layer, mason]
can be accomplished by bending a low growing, flexible stem to the ground. Cover part of it with soil, leaving the remaining 6 to 12 inches above the soil. Bend the tip into a vertical position and stake in place. The sharp bend will often induce rooting, but wounding the lower side of the bent branch may help also. Simple layering can be done on most plants with low-growing branches. See LAYERING Layering.
SIMPLE RACEME
n [L. simpulus, simple; racemus, bunch]
An inflorescence with one main axis (with no additional branches) from which flowers grow on petioles
SIMPLE UMBEL
n [L. simpulus, simple; umbella, sunshade]
(of inflorescences) An umbel in which the stalks (pedicels) arise directly from the top of the main stalk.
SINGLE
a [L. singulus, single]
A plant containing the normal number of petals.
SINGLE
n [L. singulus, spmple]
A flower havinging only one whorl of petals. Image /flowerinfos/33?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SINGLE DIGGING
n [L. singulus, single; O.E. dic, ditch]
A method of digging in which only the topsoil is turned over to a depth of one spit.
SINUATED
a [L. sinus; curved]
Leaf edges with rounded shapes that approach and retreat from the middle several times. If the rounded shapes become larger and deeper, the leaves are lobed like oak leaves. Image /leafshapes/41?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SNAG
n [O.E. unknown]
A short stub or frayed end left after incorrect pruning.
SOFTWOOD CUTTING
n [O.E. softe, agreeable; wudu, wood]
A cutting taken from young, immature growth during the growing season. See Cutting.
SOIL MARK
n [L. soilum, seat; O.E. mearc, mark]
The usually noticeable point on a plant's stem that shows the original ,oil level before the plant was lifted.
SOLITARY
a [L. solitarus, alone]
(of flowers) Occurring singly in each axil.
SPADIX
n [L. spadix, palm branch]
A spike of flowers on a swollen, fleshy axis. As in the Arum or Calla lillies Image /flowerinfos/19?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPATHE
n [Gk. spathe, broad blade]
A large bract subtending and often ensheathing an inflorescence. Applied mainy in the monocotyledons. Image /flowerinfos/31?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPATULATE or SPATHULATE
a [L. spatula, spoon]
(of leaves) Shaped like a spoon. Image /leafshapes/19?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPECIES
n [L. species, species
A category in plant classification. the lowest principal rank below genra containing closely related, very similar individuals.
SPECIMEN PLANT
n [L. specere, to look; planta, sprout]
A striking plant, usually a tree or shrub in prime condition.
SPENT
a [L. dispendere, pay]
(of flowers). Dying or dead.
SPICATE
a [L. spica, spike]
Spike-like as an inflorescence bearing spikes, with spur-like prominance.
SPIKE
n [L. spica, spike or ear of corn]
A racemose and therefore an indeterminate inflorescence that bears unstalked(sessile) flowers along a common axis (stem). See Raceme Image /flowerinfos/1?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPIKELET
n [L.spica, spike]
A small spike, forming part of a compound inflorescence often applied to grasses where the flowerhead consists of several flowers with basal bracts.
SPINE
n [L. spina, spine]
The hard and sharply-pointed tip of a branch or leaf, usually round in cross section.
SPINOSE
a [L. spinosus, prickly]
Spiny. Bearing many spines. Image /leafshapes/42?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPIT
a [M.Du. spit, spit]
The depth of a spade's blade, usuallv 25-30cm (10-12in).
SPLICE GRAFTING
v [M.Du. splissen, split; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
An alternative name for whip grafting, see Grafting.
SPLICED SIDE GRAFTING
n [M.Du. splissen, splice; O.E. side; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
is where the top of the stock is not cut until the two grafted parts on the side of the stock have united. See GRAFTING.
SPLICED SIDE-VENEER GRAFTING
n [M.Du. splissen, splice; O.E. side, side; O.Fr. fournir, furnish]
Side-veneer grafting is usually done on potted rootstock. Rootstock is grown in pots the season before grafting, allowed to go dormant, and then stored as with other container nursery stock. After exposure to cold weather for at least six weeks, the rootstock is brought into a cool greenhouse for a few days before grafting takes place to encourage renewed root growth. The plant should not be watered at this time. A cut is made in the side of the stock and the scoin placed under the flap. See GRAFTING.
SPORANGIOCARP
n [Gk. sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel; karpos, fruit]
ASCOCARP, SPOROCARP q.v. The sexual fruiting body of a fungus in the Phylum Ascomycete(ascomycota). The Ascocarp contains the asci and ascospores.
SPORANGIUM
n [Gk. sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel]
A body that produces spores on a fern.
SPORE
n [Gk. sporos, seed]
The minute, reproductive structure of flowerless plants, such as ferns, fungi, and mosses. Image /leafshapes/111?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPOROCARP
n [Gk. sporos, seed; karpos, fruit]
ASCOCARP, SPORANGIOCARP q.v. The sexual fruiting body of a fungus in the Class or Phylum Ascomycete(ascomycota). The Ascocarp contains the asci and ascospores.
SPORT
n [M.E. shortening of disport]
A somatic mutation. alt. ROGUE See MUTATION.
SPRAY
n [O.E. sprie, spray]
A group of,flowers or flowerheads on a single, branching stem, such as occurs on many chrysanthemums and carnations.
SPUR
n [A.S. spora, spur]
A hollow, usually rather conical. projection from the base of a sepal, petal. or fused corolla.
STALK
n [A.S. stel, stalk]
A general term describing the stem of a leaf or flower (e.g. petiole, peduncle).
STAMEN
n [L. stamen, warp]
The male reproductive organ in a plant, comprising the pollen-producing anther and usually its supporting filament or stalk. Image /flowerinfos/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
STAMINATE
a [L. stamen, warp]
Having stamens (male organism but no carpels (female organs) cf. PISTILLATE.
STAMINODE
n [L. stamen, warp; Gk. edios, form]
A sterile, often reduced modified stamen. alt PARASTAMEN.
STANDARD
n [L. stare, to stand]
1) A tree with at least 2m (6ft) of stem below the first branches . 2) A shrub trained so that it has a clear length of stem below the branches (1-1.2m/3-4ft for roses). 3) One of the three inner and often erect perianth segments of the iris flower. 4) The largest, usually uppermost petal of a flower in the subfamily Papilionoideae (peas and beans) of the famil,v Leguminosae. (see also HALF-STANDARD)
STATION SOW
v [L. statio, station; O.E. sewan, sow]
To sow seed individually or in small groups at fixed intervals along a row or drill.
STELLATE
a [L. stellatus, star]
Star-shaped.
STEM
n [A.S. setmn, stem]
The main axis of a plant, usually above ground and supporting leaves, flowers, and fruits.
STEM CUTTING
n [A.S. stemn tree stem]
A cutting taken from portion of a plant stem. Any cutting taken from of a shoot sometimes applied to softwood and greenwood cutting. See also: Cutting.
STEM TIP CUTTING
n [A.S. stemn, stem; O.N. typpi, tip; probably Ger. cut,cut]
Any cutting taken from of a shoot sometimes applied softwood and greenwood cutting. See CUTTING.
STERILE
a [L. sterilis, barren]
1) Not producing flowers or viable seed. 2) Of flowers without functional anthers and pistils. See CARPEL. (Cf. FERTILE).
STERILE
a [L. sterilis, barren]
To render incapable of causing infection or reproduction. Alt[AXENIC]
STIGMA
n [Gk. stigma, a mark]
The part of the female reproductive organ which receives the pollen prior to fertilization. Image /flowerinfos/30?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
STIPULATE
a [L. stipula, small stalk]
Having a stalk or stipe. Image /leafshapes/87?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
STIPULES
n [L. stipula, small stalk]
Leaflike organs at the bottom of the petiole. They are usually paired and often small.
STOCK
n [A.S. stocc, post]
The stem of a treeor bush receiving bud or scoin inh grafting. 2) The perennial part of a herbaceous perrenial plant] See ROOTSTOCK.
STOCK PLANT
n [A.S. stocc post; O.E. plante, plant]
A plant used to obtain propagation material whether seed or vegetative material.
STOLON
n [L. stolo, shoot]
A horizontally spreading or arching stem, usually above ground, which roots at its tip to produce a new plant. Often confused with runner.
STOMATA
n [Gk. stoma, mouth]
The pores that occur in large numbers in the epidermis of plants and through which gaseous exchange takes place.
STONE FRUIT
n [O.E. stan, stone; L. fructus, fruit]
Fruits, also known as "drupes", with one or more seeds ("stones") surrounded by fleshy, usually edible tissue. They are common in the genus Prunus (e.g. apricots, plums, cherries) and some other plants, such as mangos, that produce indehiscent, woody fruits.
STOOL
n [O.E. stool, seat]
A number of shoots arising, more or less uniformly, from the base , of an individual plant, for example some shrubs cut back regularly to produce propagating material and also chrysanthemums.
STOOL LAYERING
n [O.E. stool, seat; M.E. layer, mason]
Stool or mound layering is widely used to produce clonal rootstocks of apple and plum. Plants are cut back almost to ground level and allowed to sprout new shoots, soil (or a mixture of soil and sawdust) is mounded up around the bases of these shoots and the mound is built up as the shoots grow. Roots develop at the bases of these shoots. The following spring the rooted layers are cut off and transplanted into nursery rows for another season's growth. See LAYERING
STOOLING
a [O.E. stool, stool]
(of plants) Having several stems arising together at the base. The routine pruning back of woody plants by coppicing. See LAYERING
STOPPING
vn [O.E. stoppian, to block up]
The cutting out of the apex growing piont of a plant to induce side shoots. See PINCHING OUT.
STRAIN
a [O.E. strion, aquision]
A loose, undefined term sometimes applied to races of seed-raised plants not a term accepted under the International Code for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants because of its imprecise definition.
STRATIFICATION
a [L. stratum, layer; facere, to make]
Storage of seed in warm or cold conditions to overcome dormancy and aid germination.
STYLAR COLUMN
n [L. stylus, pricker; columna, pillar]
Styles fused together.
STYLE
n [Gk. stylos, pillar]
The usually elongated part of a carpel between the ovary and stigma, not always present. Image /flowerinfos/17?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SUB-LATERAL
a [L. sub, belowlatus, side]
A sideshoot originating from a lateral shoot or branch.
SUBAPICAL
a [L. sub, under; apex, summit]
Below the apex.
SUBFAMILY
a [L. sub, under; familia, household]
A category in plant classification, a division within the family.
SUBSHRUB
n [L. sub, under; M.E. shrubbe, bushwood]
Borderline case between a bush and an herbaceous plant. Initially, it will have herbaceous branches, but later it will have small woody branches.Usually a low growing plant that is woody at the base but has soft, usually herbaceous, growth above.
SUBSOIL
n [L. sub, under; solium, seat]
The layers of soil beneath the topsoil these are usually less fertile and of poorer texture and structure than the topsoil.
SUBSPECIES
n [L. sub, under; species, particular kind]
A subdivision of a species, higher in rank than varietas (see FORMA.)
SUBULATE
a [L. subula, awl]
Narrow and tapering to a point. Like a pointed braddle or awl. Become gradually narrower or thinner toward one end, like an onion leaf. Image /leafshapes/20?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SUCCULENT
n [L. succus, sap]
(of plants). A plant with thick, fleshy leaves and/or stems adapted to store water. All cacti are succulents.
SUCKER
n [A.S. sucan, to suck]
1) A shoot that arises below ground from a plant's roots or underground stem. 2) On grafted plants, a sucker is any shoot that arises below the graft union.
SUFFRUTESCENT
n [L. sub, under; frutex, shrub]
(of herbaceous plants) Having a persistent woody stem base.
SUPERIOR
a [L. superior, upper]
An ovary situated above the other organs of the flower, meaning that it isvisible when looking from above into the flower.
SUSCEPTIBLE
n [L. suscipere, to undergo]
A plant, animal or organism or system that lacks the ability to resist a disease, a pathogen or virus.
SUTURE
n [L. sutura, seam]
A line of union the line along which dehiscence often takes place in fruits.
SYMBIOSIS
n [Gk. symbionai, to tive together]
The non-parasitic relationship between living organisms to their mutual benefit.
SYMPETALOUS
a [Gk. syn, with; petalon, leaf]
With the petals united along their margins, at least at the base. q.v. GAMOPETALOUS cf. MONOPETALOUS, POLYPETALOUS
SYMPODIAL
a [Gk. syn, with; pous, foot]
Definite growth of a shoot terminating in an inflorescence or dying growth is continued by lateral buds. (Cf CYME and MONOPODIAL.)
SYMPODIAL
a [Gk. syn, with; pous, foot]
The growth of lateral shoots below and to one side of the apical shoot, when the apical shoot stops growing.
SYNANAMORPH
n [Gk. syn, with; morph, form]
Two or more distinct anatomic forms (anamorphs) produced the same fungus.
SYNCARPOUS
n [Gk. syn, with; karpos, fruit]
(of ovaries) Made up of two or more fused carpels.
SYNNEMA
n [Gk. syn, with; nema, thread]
Conidiophores that are fuse together to form a stalk with conidia at the end or on the edges. Te united stamen filaments of certain plants.
SYNONYM
n [Gk. sunonumon, with name]
A word or phrase referring to another name for the same thing. e..g. shut, close.
SYSTEMIC
a [Gk. sustema, with setup]
Term describing a pesticide or fungicide that is absorbed and distributed through a plant when applied to the soil or foliage.

Back to Top of page