Glossary Entries




From MAIDEN To OXYTOPHYTE    


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Name Origin Description Extra
M
MAIDEN
a [O.E. maegden, maid or virgin]
A grafted tree in its first year. (See also WHIP.)
MAINCROP
n [O.N. meginn, strong; O.E. crop, pouch]
of vegetables). Those cultivars that produce crops throughout the main growing season, doing so over a longer period than either early or late cultivars.
MALE FLOWER
n [L. mas, male; flos, flower]
A flower containing functional stamens, but no carpels.
MARCOTTAGE
a [Fr. marcottage, layering]
1) propagation of trees by stripping ring of bark and covering with moss. 2) An alternative name for air layering see LAYERING.
MARGINAL
n [L. margo, edge]
Water plant. A plant that grows partially submerged in shallow water or in constantly moist soil at the edge of a pond or stream.
MARGINAL PLACENTATION
a [L. margo, edge; placenta, flat]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne along the fused margins of a single carpel, eg pea seeds in a pod.
MEDIUM
n [L. medium, middle]
1) A compost, growing mixture, or other material in which plants may be propagated or grown. 2) Applied to those soils that are intermediate in character between heavy and light. (See also LOAM.)
MEMBRANOUS
a [L. membrana, membrane]
Resembling a membrane thin, dry and semi-transparent.
MERICARP
n [Gk. meris, part; karpos, fruit]
A one-seeded portion of a fruit which splits up when the fruit is mature, eg the fruits of the Umbelliferae
MERISTEM
n [Gk. meristos, divide]
Plant tissue that is able to divide to produce new cells. Shoot or root tips contain meristematic tissue and may be used for micropropagation. See CAMBIUM
MESOCHILE
n [Gk. meso, middle. chellos,lip]
In orchids the lip which is divided into three parts known as the hypochile, mesochile and epichile. The elongated fluted middle part of the lip between the Hypochile and epichile. See HYPOCHILE, EPICHILE
MESOPHYTE
n [Gk. mesos,middle; phyton, plant]
A plant having moderate moisture requirements.
MICRONUTRIENTS
n [Gk. mikros, small;L. nutrire, to nurish]
Chemical elements essential to plants but needed only in very small quantities, also known as trace elements. (See also NUTRIENTS.)
MICROPROPAGATION
a [Gk. mikros, small; L. progagare, to propagate]
Propagation of plants by tissue culture.
MICROPYLE
n [Gk. mikros, small; pyle, gate]
The opening through the integuments of an ovule, through which the poIlen-tube grows after pollination.
MIDRIB
n [A.S. mid, middle; ribb, rib]
The primary, usually central vein of a leaf or leaflet.
MODULE
n [L. modulus, measured]
Applied to various types of container, particularly those used in multiples for sowing seed and pricking out seedlings.
MONO-
a [Gk. monos, single]
A prefix meaning single, one or once.
MONOCARPIC
n [Gk. monos, single; karpos, fruit]
Flowering and fruiting only once before dying such plants may take several years to reach flowering size.
MONOCHASIUM
n [Gk.monos, single; chasis, division]
A cymose inflorescence with each axis producing one branch in which there is a single terminal flower or a single branch bearing flower(s). Image /flowerinfos/20?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
MONOCLINOUS
a [Gk. monos, single; kline, couch]
A hermaphrodite having both sex organs in a single flower.
MONOCLINOUS
a [Gk. monos, single; kline, couch]
A hermaphrodite having both sex organs in a single flower.
MONOCOLPATE
a [Gk. monos, single; kalpos, fold]
(of pollen) Having a single colpus (an oblong-elliptic furrowed aperture).
MONOCOTYLEDON
n [Gk. monos, single; kotyledon, cup]
A flowering plant that has only one cotyledon or seed leaf in the seed it is also characterized by narrow, parallel-veined leaves, and parts of the flower in threes or multiples of three.
MONOECIOUS
n Gk. monos, single; oikos, house]
Bearing separate male and female reproductive organs on the same plant.
MONOGENERIC
a [Gk. monos, single; genus, race]
(of a family) Containing only one genus.
MONOPHYLLOUS
a [Gk. monos, single; phyllon, leaf]
One-leaved; composed of a single leaf; as, a monophyllous involucre or calyx
MONOPODIAL
a [Gk. monos, single; pous, foot]
Growing indefinitely from an apical or terminal bud on a stem. (Cf. SYMPODIAL.)
MONOTYPIC
n [Gk. monos, single; typos, type]
A genus or a family containing only a single species.
MOSS PEAT
n [O.E. mos, bog; L. peta, peat]
Moss peat is made from the partly rotted remains of the Bog Moss or Sphagnum plant. More than 14 species are found in Irish bogs. See PEAT.
MOUND LAYERING
a [L. mundus, world; ME. lay, lay]
Mound or stool layering is widely used to produce clonal rootstocks of apple and plum. Plants are cut back almost to ground level and allowed to sprout new shoots, soil (or a mixture of soil and sawdust) is mounded up around the bases of these shoots and the mound is built up as the shoots grow. Roots develop at the bases of these shoots. The following spring the rooted layers are cut off and transplanted into nursery rows for another season's growth. See LAYERING
MUCILAGE
n [L. mucus, mucus]
A slimy secretion, which swells when in contact with water.
MUCRONATE
a [L. mucro, sharp point; ferre, to bear]
(of leaves) The leaves end abruptly in a sharp point or spine. Image /leafshapes/61?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
MULCH
n [O.E. melse, soft]
A material applied in a layer to the soil surface to suppress weeds, conserve moisture, and maintain a preferably cool, even root temperature.
MULTIPLE CORDON
a [L. multus, many, chorda, cord]
An Espalier trained tree with multiple branches. See CORDON.
MULTISERIATE
a [L. multus, many, serere, to put in a row]
(of flower parts) Borne in any series or whorls.
MUTATION
n [L. mutare, to change]
An induced or spontaneous genetic change, often resulting in shoots with variegated foliage or flowers of a different colour from the parent plant. A mutation is also known as a sport. See SPORT, ROGUE.
MYCOPLASMA
n [Gk. mykes, fungus; plasma, form]
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria without a cell wall. They are the smallest known free-living life forms and are often unaffected by many common antibiotics, such as penicillin, which attacks the cell wall synthesis. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic and some like M. pneumoniae, causes atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders. In plants they are often found in the cell walls of the phloem cells. In some respects they are intermediate between bacteria and viruses. cf.[YELLOWS]
MYCORRHIZA
n [Gk. mykes, fungus; rhiza, root]
The symbiotic association of roots of some seed plants with fungi.
N
NAKED
a [A.S. nacod, naked]
(of flowers) Lacking a perianth.
NATURALISE
v [L. natura, nature]
To establish and grow as if in the wild.
NECK
a [O.E. hnecca, back of neck]
The junction between the stem and root. See COLLAR.
NECTAR
n [Gk. nektar, nectar]
Sugary liquid secreted from a nectary often attractive to pollinating insects.
NECTARY
n [Gk. nektar, nectar]
Glandular tissue usually found in the flower, but sometimes found on the leaves or stems, that secretes nectar.
NEUTRAL
a [L. neuter, neither]
(of soil or substances). With a pH value of 7, i.e. neither acid nor alkaline.
NODAL
a [L. nodus, knob]
Pertaining to a node or nodes. See CUTTING.
NODAL CUTTING
n [L. nodus, knob; unknown probably Gmc.]
one trimmed at the base just below a node. See CUTTING
NODE
a [L. nodus, knob]
The point on a stem from which one or more leaves, shoots, branches, or flowers arise.
NON-REMONTANT
a [L. non, not; Fr. remont, comming up again]
Flowering or fruiting only once in a single flush. (Cf. REMONTANT.)
NUCELLUS
n [L. dim of nux, nut]
The central nutritive tissue of the ovule. containing the embryo sac and surrounded by, in angiosperms, two integument.
NUMEROUS
a [L. numerus, a number]
(of floral parts) Usually meaning more than ten cf. INDEFINATE.
NURSERY BED
n [L. nutricius, a person that nurishes; O.E. bedde, bed]
An area used for germinating seeds or growing on young plants before planting them out in their permanent positions.
NUT
n [L. nux, nut]
A one-seeded, indehiscent fi-uit with a tough or woody coat, for example an acorn. Less specifically, all fruits and seeds with woody or leathery coats.
NUTRIENT MINERALS
n [L. nutrire, to nurish;minera, ore]
(mineral ions) used to develop protein and other compounds required for growth
O
OBCORDATE
a [L. ob, against; cor, heart]
(of leaves) The leaves have the point of attachment at the apex of the heart shape. Image /leafshapes/62?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBLANCEOLATE
a [L. ob, reversely; lancea, spear]
(of leaves) Lance-shaped but broadest above the middle and tapering toward the base. Image /leafshapes/12?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBLIGATE
a [L. obligatus, bound]
Parasite unable to grow on its own entirely dependent on a host for nutrition.
OBLIQUE
a [L. obliquus, slanting]
(of leaves) The leaf bases are slanted about the midrib and are therefore uneven. Image /leafshapes/76?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBLONG
a [L. oblongus, longish]
(of leaves) Having a somewhat elongated form with approximately parallel sides. A square, circular, rectangle, ellipse, or spherical form by being elongated in one direction. Image /leafshapes/13?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBOVATE
a [L. ob, against; ovum, egg]
Egg-shaped with the smaller, pointed end attached to the stem. Image /leafshapes/14?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBTUSE
a [L. obtusus, blunt]
(of leaves) The leaf tip is blunted with an angle greater then 90 degrees. Image /leafshapes/64?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OCHREA
a, [L.ocrea, greave]
A cup-shaped structure formed by the joining of stipules or leaf bases around a stem; A SHEATH. q.v. OCREA
OCREA
n [L. ocrea, greave]
A cup-shaped structure formed by the joining of stipules or leaf bases around a stem; A SHEATH. q.v. OCHREA
OEDEMA
n [Gk. oidema, swelling]
A swelling of tissues, usually caused by excess fluid in the cavities between cells or tissues of the body. see [EDEMA]
OFFSET
n [O.E. off, var of of; L secta, sect]
A short prostrate branch that takes root at the apex and develops a new individual. See OFFSHOOT.
OFFSET
n [O.E. of, combined with off, relationship with away from; O.Fr. sette, from]]
Young plant that arises by natural vegetative reproduction, usually at the base of the parent plant in bulbs. offsets are initially formed within the bulb inner tunic, but later separate out. Also known as offshoots. See CORMLET.
OFFSHOOT
n [O.E. off, var of of; A.S. sceotan, to dart]
A lateral shoot from a main stem. See OFFSET
OPEN
a [O.E. openian, open]
appl. aestivatian where perianth leaves leaves do not meet at the edges as in Cruciferae or plant community which do not completly colonize the ground, but leaves bare areas.
OPEN-POLLINATION
a [O.E. openian, open; L. plooen, fine flower]
Natural polination= (See also POLLINATION)
OPPOSITE
a [L. opponere, to oppose]
Term describing two leaves or other plant organs on opposite sides of a stem or other axis. (Cf ALTERNATE) Image /leafshapes/37?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
ORBICULAR
a [L. orbis, orb]
More or less circular with petiole attached to the center. Image /leafshapes/15?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
ORGANIC
a [Gk. organon, instrument]
1) Chemically, referring to compounds containing carbon from decomposed p1ant or animal organisms. 2) Loosely applied to mulches, composts, or similar materials derived from plant or animal materials. 3) Also applied to crop production and gardening without the use of synthetic or non-organic materials.
ORTHOTROPOUS
a [Gk. orthos, straight; thrope, turn]
(of ovules) Borne on a straight stalk (funicle) not bent over.
OVAL
a [L. ovum, egg]
(of leaves) An elliptical or egg-shaped form or figure. Image /leafshapes/16?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OVARY
n [L. ovarium, ovary]
The lower part of the female reproduction organ (the pistil) of the flower, containing one or more ovules that may develop into a fruit after fertilization. (See also Carpel) Image /flowerinfos/11?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OVATE
a [L. ovum, egg]
Egg-shaped with the wider, rounded end attached to the stem. Image /leafshapes/103?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OVOID
a [L. ovum, egg; Gk. eidos, form]
(of leaves) Egg-shaped.
OVULE
n [L. ovum, egg]
The part of the ovary that develops into the seed after pollination and fertilization.
OVUM
n [L. ovum, egg]
Plural [OVA]. The reproductive female gamete, organ or body of animals. alt[EGG]
OXYGENATOR
n [Fr. oxygine, acidyfing constituent]
Submerged aquatic plants that releases oxygen into the water.
OXYPHILOUS
a [Gk. oxys, sharp; philein, to love]
A plant tolerating only acid soils. Alt BASIFUGE, CALCIFUGE, See CALICOLE, SILICOLE
OXYPHYTE
n [Gk. oxys, sharp, phytum, plant]
A plant thriving on acid soils. Alt.CALCIFUGE, OXYTOPHYTE. See, CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE
OXYTOPHYTE
n [Gk. oxys, sharp, phytum, plant]
A plant thriving on acid soils. Alt.CALCIFUGE, OXYTOPHYTE. See, CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE

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