Glossary Entries




From GAMOPETALOUS To ISOMETRIC   


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Name Origin Description Extra
G
GAMOPETALOUS
a [Gk. gamo, marriage; petalon, leaf]
With petals fused into a tube, at least at the base. q.v. SYMPETALOUS, cf. MONOPETALOUS, POLYPETALOUS
GAMOSEPALOUS
a [Gk. gamos, marriage; F. sepale, sepal]
With sepals fused, at least at the base. cf, MONOSEPALOUS, POLYSEPALOUS.
GENUS
n [L. genus, race]
(pl. genera). A category in plant classification ranked between family and species. A group of related species linked by a range of common characters for example, all species of horse chestnut are grouped under the genus Aesculus. (See also CULTIVAR, FAMILY, FORMA, HYBRED, SUBSPECIES, and VARIETY.)
GERMINATION
n [L. gernen, bud]
The physical and chemical changes that take place as a seed starts to grow and develop into a plant.
GIANT-ROSETTE PLANTS
n [Gk. gigant, giant; F. rose, rose; l. planta, plant]
A tree without branches that has a top of large leaves at the end of the trunk, such as virtually all palms.
GIMPED
n [from Dut. unknown origin]
(of leaves) scalloped or rounded tooth margin. q.v. CRENATE
GIRDLING
v [Gmc. gird, girth]
1) The removal of bark all round a stem or branch caused by animal or physical damage or by a constricting tie that prevents the flow of water and nutrients to the upper part of the plant, eventually causing the death of all the tissue above the girdled trunk or branch. 2) See Bark-ringing.
GLABROUS
a [L. glaber, smooth]
Without hairs or projections (smooth).
Gland
n [L. gland, acorn]
Secreting organ producing oil, resin, nectar, water, etc. cf HYDATHODE, NECTARY.
GLAUCOUS
a [L. glaucus, sea-green]
With a waxy, grayish-blue bloom.
GLOBOSE
a [L. globulus, small globe]
Spherical, rounded.
GLUME
n [L. gluma, husk]
One of the two chaffy basal bracts of a grass spikelet.
GRAFT
n [O.E. graffe, graft]
To join artificially one or more plant parts to another.
GRAFT UNION
n [O.E. graffe, graft; L. unio, unity]
The point at which scion and rootstock are joined.
GRAFTING
v [O.F. graffe, graft]
A method of propagation by which an artificial union is made between the scion of one plant and the rootstock of another so that they eventually function as one plant. Methods include apical-wedge grafting, bud-grafting (including chip-budding and T -budding,), flat grafting, saddle grafting, side grafting, side-wedge grafting, spliced side grafting, spliced side-veneer grafting, whip (or splice) grafting, and whip-and-tongue grafting.
GRAFTING TAPE
n [O.F. graffe, graft]
Tape used to protect a graft union during healing. It is usually impervious to water but let air through. This combination is perfect for grafting which requires a barrier to keep moisture in while allowing oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through.
GRAIN
n [L. granum, grain]
A single seed of fruit or cereal. See CORYOPSIS.
GREEN MANURE
n [O.E. grene, green;O.Fr. manouvrer, movement]
A quick-maturing, leafy crop such as mustard that is grown specifically to be dug back into, and thereby enrich, the soil.
GREENWOOD CUTTING
n [Gmc. relative to grass & grow]
A cutting taken from the soft tips of young growth after the spring growth flush has slowed down slightly harder and woodier stems than are used for softwood cuttings. See also: Cutting.
GROUND COLOUR
a [O.E. grund, ground; L. color, colour]
Main (background) colour of petals.
GROUND COVER
n [O.E. grund, ground; L. couperire, to cover]
Usually low growing plants that quickly Cover the soil surface and suppress weeds.
GROWTH BUD
n [O.E.growan,grow;M.E. budde, bud]
A growth bud occurs at the tip of a stem, or along the stem, and produces leafy growth. See BUD.
GROWTH BUD
n [O.E. growan, of Gmc origin rel to grass and green]
A bud from which only leaves or a shoot develop. See BUD.
GUTTATE
a [L. gutta, drop]
Having drop like markings. Containing small drop like substances.
GUTTATION
N [L. gutta, drop]
The formation of water droplets on plants from moisture in the atmosphere. The exudation of liquid from nectaries or hydathodes.
GUTTULATE
a [L. gutta, drop]
In the form of small drop. Containing small droplets of oil-like substances. see [EGUTTULATE]
GYNOBASIC STYLE
n [Gk. gyne, woman; L. basis, base]
A style that arises near the base of a deeply-lobed ovary . alt GYNOBASE
GYNOECIUM
n [Gk. gyne, woman; oikos, house]
All the female reproductive organs of a flower, comprising one or more free or fused carpels.
GYNOPHORE
n [Gk. gyne, woman;pherein, to carry
Stalk of a carpel or gynoecium.
GYPSOPHIL
a [Gk. gypsos, chalk; philein, to love]
Thriving on clalk or gypsum soils. Alt. GYPSOPHIL, CALICOLE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE.
GYPSOPHYTE
n [Gk. gypsos, chalk; phyton, plant]
A plant thriving on clalk or gypsum soils. Alt. GYPSOPHIL, CALICOLE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE.
H
HABIT
n [L. habitus, appearance
The characteristic mode of growth or occurrence: the form and shape of a plant.
HALF HARDY
a [O.E. heard, hard; O.Fr. hardir, become bold]
Used of a plant not tolerating frost in a Qiven climatic zone. The term generally implies an ability to withstand lower temperatures than tender.
HALF STANDARD
a [O.E. healf, half; O.Fr. estandart, extend]
A tree or shrub that has a clear stem of 1-1.Sm (3-5ft) between ground level and the lowest branches. See STANDARD.
HALM
n [A.S. haelm, stem]
See HAULM q.v.
HALOPHYTE
n [Gk. helos, marsh; phyton, plant]
A plant that tolerates salty conditions.
HAPLOID
n [Gk. haploos, simple]
Of an organism having the same number of chromosomes as gametes or sperm or unfertilised egg. alt[HEMIKARYOTIC] cf.[DIPLOID, DUPLEX]
HARDENING OFF
v [O.E. heard, hard; of, of]
Gradually acclimatizing plants that have been raised under cover to cooler, outdoor conditions.
HARDPAN
a [O.E. heard, hard; panne, pan]
A hard layer developed in the B-horizon of the soil, consisting of deposited salts, which restricts drainage and root growth. See PAN.
HARDWOOD CUTTING
n [O.E. Hard, heard of Gmc origin]
A cutting taken from mature wood of both deciduous and evergreen plants at the end of the growing season See Cutting.
HARDY
a [O.E. hardir, become bold]
Able to withstand year-round climatic conditions, including frost. without protection.
HASTATE
a [L. hasta, spear]
(of leaves) Having the shape of an arrowhead but with the basal lobes pointed and flaring outwards at the base. Image /leafshapes/8?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=2
HAULM
n [A.S. haelm, stem]
The top-growth of plants such as potatoes and legumes. alt. HALM
HAUSTORIUM
n [L. haurire, to drink]
A peg-like fleshy outgrowth from a parasitic plant. usually embedded in the host plant and drawing nourishment from it.
HEAD
n [O.E. heafod, head]
1) The part of a tree above a clear trunk. 2) A dense inflorescence of small, crowded, often stalkless, flowers - a capitulum.
HEAD BACK
v [O.E. heafod, head; baec, back]
To prune back the main branches of trees or shrubs by half or more.
HEADING
v [O.E. deafod, head]
See HEART UP.
HEART UP
a [O.E. heorte, heart]]
The stage at which vegetables such as lettuces or cabbage, begin to produce tight "hearts" or "heads" of inner leaves.
HEAVY
a [O.E. hefig,heavy]
(of soil). Having a high proportion of clay.
HEEL
n [A.S. hela,heel]
A small piece or strip of bark or wood that is retained at the base of a cutting when it is pulled away from a main stem.
HEELCUTTING
n [Gmc. rel to hough]
A cutting taken with a portion of the bark or mature wood at the base. See Cutting.
HEELING IN
v [A.S. hela, heel; inne, inn]
Temporary planting until a plant can be placed in its permanent position.
HELICOID
a [Gk. helix, spiral; eidos, like]
(of cymose inflorescences) Coiled like a spring. A type of sympodial branching in which sympodium consists of forked branchesof the same side. See DREPANIUM
HEMIKARYOTIC
a [Gk. hemi, half; karyon, nucleus]
Of an organism having the same number of chromosomes as gametes or sperm or unfertilised egg. alt[HEMIKARYOTIC] cf.[DIPLOID, DUPLEX]
HERB
n [L. herba, green crop]
1) A plant grown for its medicinal or flavouring properties or for its scented foliage. 2) Botanicall}-. a herbaceous plant.
HERBACEOUS
a [L. herbaceus, grassy]
A non-woody plant in which the upper parts die down to a rootstock at the end of the growing season. It is chiefly applied to perennials, although botanically it also applies to annuals and biennials.
HERBICIDE
n [L. herba, green crop; cide, kill]
A chemical used to control or kill weeds.
HERMAPHRODITE
n [Gk. hermaphroditos, combining both sexes]
Plants whose flowers have both male and female organs. See HERMAPHRODITIC, alt. MONOCLINOUS.
HERMAPHRODITIC
a [Gk. hermaphroditos, combining both sexes]
Describing plants whose flowers have both male and female reproductive organs.
HETEROKARYOSIS
n Gk.[heteros, other; karyon, kernel]
A biological term common in fungi, lichen and slime moulds meaning a cell or body with two or more genetically different nuclei. This condition can also be artificially induced in vitro, to study the interaction between the components of cells from different species. Adj. HETEROKARYOTIC.
HETEROKARYOTIC
a Gk.[heteros, other; karyon, kernel]
A biological term common in fungi, lichen and slime moulds describing a cell or body with two or more genetically different nuclei. This condition can also be artificially induced in vitro, to study the interaction between the components of cells from different species. Alternate HETEROKARYOSIS.
HILUM
n [L. hilum, trifle]
The scar left on a seed marking the point of attachment to the stalk of the ovule.
HIRSUTE
a [L. hirsutus,shaggy]
Covered in rough, coarse hairs. Honey guide Markings (eg lines or dots) on the perianth which direct insects to the nectar.
HUMUS
n [L. humus, earth]
The chemically complex organic residue of decayed vegetable matter in soil. Also often used to describe partly decayed matter such as leaf mould or compost.
HYBRID
n [L. hibrida, cross]
The offspring of genetically different parents usually of distinct taxa (see TAXON). Hybrids between species of the same genus are known as interspecifie hybrids. Those between different but usually closely related genera are known as intergeneric hybrids. (See also Fl HYBRIDS and F2 HYBRIDS. INTERSPECIFIC HYBRID)
HYBRID VIGOUR
n [L. hibrida, cross; vigere, be lively]
An improvement in growth and yield shown by most hybrids and thought to be due to increased heterozygosity. q.v. heterosis
HYBRIDIZATION
n [L. hibrida, cross]
The process by which hybrids are formed. Uusually the cross-fertilization between two different, but similar species.
HYDATHODE
n [Gk. hydatos, of water;hodos, way]
A specialized gland, usually found in leaves that exude water.
HYDATHODE
n [Gk. kydatos, of water]
An epidermal structure specialised for exudation of water.
HYDROCULTURE
n [Gk. hydor, water; L. colere, to till]
The cultivation of plants in nutrient-rich water. sometime with sterile aggregates. (See also HYDROPONICS.)
HYDROPHYTE
n [Gk. hydor, water; phyton, plant]
An aquatic plant.
HYDROPONICS
n [Gk. hydor, water; ponos, exertion]
Growing plants in dilute solution of nutrients. Applied loosely to any form of soilless culture.
HYPANTHIUM
n [Gk. hypo,under; anthos, flower]
A cup-shaped enlargement of the floral receptacle or the bases of the floral parts, which often enlarges and surrounds the fruits, eg the fleshy tissue in rose-hips.
HYPHA
n [Gk. hyphe, web]
The thread-like unit of construction of fungi.
HYPOCHILE
n [Gk. hypo,under. chellos,lip]
In orchids the lip which is divided into three parts known as the hypochile, mesochile and epichile. The basal part of the lip. In the genus Coryanthes with a horizontal cut the hypochile resembles a helmet of the fireman with its characteristical neck-protection. The globular- or hood-shaped portion of the orchid flower lip. See EPICHILE, MESOCHILE
HYPOCTYL
n [Gk. hypo, under; kotyle, cup]
The portion of a seed or seedling just below the cotyledons.
HYPOGEAL
a [Gk. hypo, under; ge, earth]
Type of seed germination in which the seed and cotyledons remain below the soil surface while the youngest shoot (plumule) emerges above soil level.
HYPOGYNOUS
a [Gk. hypo, under; gyne, female]
(of flowers) With the sepals, petals and stamens attached to the receptacle or axis, below and free from the ovary.
I
IMBRICATE
a [L. imbricare, to tile]
(of sepals and petals) Overlapping, as in a tiled roof.
IMPARIPINNATE
a [L. impar, unequal, pinna, wing]
(of leaves) A pinnate leaf with an unpaired terminal leaflet occurring centrally. cf. PARIPINNATE Image /leafshapes/45?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=2
INAPERTURATE
a [L. in, not; aperatura, to open]
(of pollen grains) Without an aperture without any pores or furrows.
INCISED
a [L. incisus, to cut into]
(of leaves) Sharply and deeply cut. Image /leafshapes/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=2
INCOMPATIBLE
n [L. in, not; compatibilis,compatable]
Of plants between which hybrids cannot be formed.
INCURVATE
a [L. incurvus, bent]
Curved inwards or bent backwards. cf[INFLECTED, INCURVED, INFLEXED]
INCURVED
a [L. incurvus, bent]
Applied to petals of flowers and florets that curve inwards to form a compact. rounded shape. Incurving flowerheads are less compact with more loosely arranged but still incurved florets.
INDEFINITE
a [L. in, not; definitus, limited]
(of flower parts) Of a number large enough to make a precise count difficult.
INDEHISCENT
a [L. in not; dehiscens, gaping]
Of a fruit that does not split open to release its seeds. Cf . DEHISCENT.
INDUMENTUM
n [L. indumentum, covering]
A covering, usually of hairs.
INFECTION
n [L. inficere, to taint]
An invasion or condition caused by fungi or bacteria. cf.[INFESTATION]
INFERIOR
a [L. inferior, lower]
of ovaries) An ovary with the sepals, petals and stamens attached to its apex.
INFESTATION
n [L. infestare, to be hostile]
an invasion by external organisms. cf[INFECTION]
INFLECTED
a [L. inflectere, to ben inwards]
Curved or sharply bent inwards towards the axis. alt[INFLEXED] cf.[INCURVATE]
INFLEXED
a [L. inflectere, to brnd inwards]
Curved or sharply bent inwards towards the axis. alt[INFLECTED] cf.[INCURVATE]
INFLORESCENCE
n [L. inflorescere, to begin to blossom]
A group of flowers borne on a single axis (stem) for eample. racemes, panicles, and cynics. Informal. Applied to some cultivars of chrysanthemums, dahlias, and other flowers with irregular flower formation. Any arrangement of more than one flower, eg. bostryx, catkins, capitulum, cincinnus, compound, corymb, cyme, dichasium, panicle, raceme, rhipidium, simple, single, spadix, spike, thyrse verticillaster and umbel.
INFRUCTESCENCE
n [L. in, into; fructus, fruit]
A cluster of fruits, derived from an inflorescence.
INORGANIC
a [L. in not; Gk. organon, instrument]
Of a chemical compound, one that does not contain carbon. Inorganic fertilizers are refined from naturally occurring chemicals or produced artificially. (Cf. ORGANIC.)
INSECTICIDE
n [L. insectum, to cut into; cide, kill]
A pesticide used to control or kill insects.
INSERTED
a [L. insertus, joined]
Growing out of another organ.
INTEGUMENT
n [L. integumentum, covering]
(of ovules) The outer protective covering of the ovule usually two are found in angiosperms.
INTERCROPPING
v [L. inter, between; O.E. crop, pouch]
The growing of quick-maturing vegetable crops between slower-growing crops to make maximum use of the available space.
INTERDETERMINATE
a [L.inter, between; determinare, to limit]
1) Used of an inflorescence not terminated by a single flower, in which the primary axis (stem) continues to develop as the lower flowers open (e.g. a raceme as in delphiniums). 2) Used of tall or cordon tomatoes, which, in a suitable climate, can grow to an indefinite length. (Cf. DETERMINATE, SEMI-DETERMINATE.)
INTERGENERIC HYBRID
a [L. inter, between; genus, race; hibrida, cross]
1) A term applied to chysanthemums with flowerheads intermediate in shape between reflexed and incmved. 2) A hybrid with character, intermediate between its two parents. See HYBRID, INTERMEDIATE.
INTERNODAL CUTTING
n [L. inter, between; nodus, knot]
A cutting in which the basal cut is made between two nodes or growth buds. See Cutting.
INTERNODE
n [L. inter, between; nodus, knot]
The length of stem that lies between two leaf-joints (nodes).
INTERPLANTING
a [L. inter, between, Gk. phyton, plant]
1) The planting of fast-maturing plants between slower growing plants to provide a display while they mature. 2) The planting of two or more types of plants together to provide a display of different colours or textures (e.g. tulips among wallflowers). Often used in relation to bedding.
INTERSPECIFIC HYBRID
n [L. intre, between; species, particular kind; facere, to make; hibrida, cross]
A hybrid created by crossing two different species within the same genus. See HYBRID.
INTRORSE
a [L. introsus,inwards]
Directed and opening inwards toward the center of the flower cf. EXTROSE.
INVOLUCEL
n [Dim of L. involucrum, covering]
A whorl of bracteoles cf. BRACTEOLE.
INVOLUCRE
n [L. involucrum, covering]
A whorl of bracts beneath an inflorescence cf. BRACT, PHYLLARY.
IRREGULAR
n [L. in, not; regula, rule]
(of flowers) Not regular not divisible into halves by an indefinite number of longitudinal planes zygomorphic.
IRRIGATION
n [L. irrigare, moisten]
1) General term for watering. 2) The use of a system of basins, channels. or sprinkler systems to provide a controlled supply of water to plants.
ISOMETRIC
a [Gk. isos, equal; metrn, measure]
Having equal dimension, growth rate or size. Of muscles creating tension without changing length. A method of drawing where the bottom and top edges are drawn at 30 degrees. A mathematics transformation without change of shape or size.

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