Glossary Entries




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Name Origin Description Extra
A
ABAXIAL
a [L. ab, from; axis, axle]
A surface which is turned away from the stem or axis.
ACARICIDE
n [Gk. akari, mite; L. cidium, kill]
A chemical or other substance, such as organochlorine, permethrin, organophosphate or diatomaceous earth, used to kill or control mites
ACAULESCENT
a [Gk. a, without; kaulos, stalk]
Stemless or nearly so.
ACERVULUS
n [L.L. dim; acervus, heap]
a small asexual, pincushion-like fruiting body that burst through the epidermis of plants parasitised by fungi of order Melanconiales. It bears conidiophores (specialized filaments, or hyphae) that produces conidia (spores).
ACHENE
n [Gk. a, not; chainein, to gape]
A small, dry, single-seeded fruit, with the seed distinct from the fruit wall, that does not split open as in the sunflower seeds.
ACICULAR
a [L. acicula, small needle]
Narrow long and pointed as in pine leaves. Image /leafshapes/1?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ACID
n [L. acidus, sour]
(of soil or substances) With a pH value of less than 7. (See: ALKALINE and NEUTRAL.)
ACROPETAL
a [Gk. akros, summit; L. petere, to seek]
the development of tissues, organs or movement of hormones in plants, maturing from the base toward the apex, with the younger tissues at the apex.
ACTINOMYCETES
n [Gk. aktis, ray; mykes, fungus]
Bacteria, generally anaerobic, that produces a filamentous and branching growth pattern that usually results in an extensive threadlike structures. Many species occur in soil and are harmless; others are important disease-causing agents in plants and animals.
ACUMINATE
a [L.acumen, point]
(of leaves) The leaves are drawn out into a long tapering point. Image /leafshapes/52?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ACUTE
a [L. acutus, sharpened]
Having a sharp point. Image /leafshapes/53?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ADAXIAL
a [L. ad, to; axis, axle]
On the side facing or turned to the stem or axis.
ADNATE
v [L. ad, to; gnatus, born]
Joined to or closely attached to different or unlike organs, eg stamens, joined along its length, to the perianth; Leaves or stipules being closely attached to the petiole or stalk.
ADVENTITIOUS
a [L. adventitious, extraordinary]
Arising from places where growths do not normally occur for example, adventitious roots may arise from stems or an adventitious bud produced abnormally from the stem instead of from a leaf axil.
AECIDIOSPORE
n [l. aecidium, cup; Gk. sporos, seed]
(AECIOSPORE q.v.) A binucleate(dikaryotic) asexual spore of a rust fungus formed by the fusion of two uninucleate cells in a chain-like series in an aecium.
AECIUM
n [L. aecidium, cup]
A rust fungi fruiting body, usually cup shaped, producing bi-nucleate(dikaryotic) asexual spores.
AERATE
v [L. aris, air]
To allow air (oxygen carbon dioxide and nitrogen etc) to enter for example, using a spiked roller to aerate a lawn.
AERIAL ROOT
n [L. aris, air]
A root that originates above around level, usually to privide achorage on an epiphvte or to absorb atmospheric moisture.
AEROBIC
a [Gk. aer, air; bios, life]
A physiological process, such as respiration, carried out in the presence of oxygen. Often the ability of an organism to live in the presence of oxygen.
AESTIVATION
a [L. eastivus, of summer]
The arrangement of the parts of a flower, usually referring to sepals and petals within the bud. Often called aestivus of summer. It importance lies in the fact that in general the same mode of aestivation(involute, reduplicate etc.) is usually common in whole tribes or orders. It is to the flower-bud what vernation (vernus spring) is to the leaf-bud. cf.[VERNATION]
AETIOLOGY
n [Gk. aitia, cause; logos, discourse]
The science or study of the origin of causes. alt [ETIOLOGY]
AGAR
n [Mal. agag-agar, a seeweed]
A gel forming carbohydrate, obtained from red algae, used in making culture medium for plants, bacteria, yeast and fungi.
AIR LAYERING
v [L. aris, air]
A method of propagating plants by cutting a stem or branch, perhaps applying a hormone to the wound, wrapping the stem or branch with damp material or soil and covering with plastic or foil to encourage root formation, and finally removing the rooted stem or branch as an independent plant..
ALBUMEN
n [L. albumen, white of eggs]
The clear jelly-like substances that surrounds the yolk of an egg and provides nutrients, like protein, to the developing embryo. q.v.[ENDOSPERM]
ALEUROSPORE
n [Gk. aleuron, flour; sporos, seed]
ALEURISPORE,ALEURIOSPORE, ALEURIUM, ALEURIOCONIDIUM q.v. A terminal or lateral thallic conidium(asexual spore) that separates by the breakdown of the generating hypha or cell wall.
ALKALINE
a [Ar. al, the; qali, ash]
(of soil or substances) With a pH value of more than 7. (See: ACID and NEUTRAL.)
ALLANTIOD
a [GK. allas, sausage; eidos, form]
Shaped like a sausage. Often used to describe spores that are slightly curved, long with rounded ends.
ALLELE
n [allelon, one another]
An allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a locus(a specific position) on a specific chromosome. For example, the gene for blood type proteins(A,B and O) can each have slightly different DNA sequence. Each different (A,B and O) would be an allele.
ALLEOPATHY
n [Gk. allelon, one another; pathos, suffer]
Allelopathy is the beneficial or harmful effects of one plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi on another plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi by biochemical means.
ALLEOPATHY
n [Gk. allelon, one another; pathos, suffer]
Allelopathy is the beneficial or harmful effects of one plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi on another plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi by biochemical means.
ALLUVIAL
a [L. alluere, to wash]
Of soil deposited by finely divided materials laid down by running water.
ALPINE
a [L. Alpes, the Alps]
A plant that grows above the tree line in mountainous areas loosely applied to rock garden plants that may be grown at relatively low altitudes.
ALPINE HOUSE
n [L. Alpes, the Alps]
An unheated, well ventilated greenhouse used for cultivating alpine and bulbous plants.
ALTERNATING
a [L. alternus, one after the other]
An arrangement of leaves in which each leaf is attached to the stem one after the other, without a second leaf directly opposite it. alt[ALTERNUS, ALTERNA, ALTERNUM] Image /leafshapes/29?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ALTERNATIVE HOST
n [L. Alternus, one after another; hospes, host]
A plant species that acts as a host for a parasite, but which is not necessary for the parasite to complete its life process.
AMBISPORANGIATE
a [L. ambo, both; Gk. sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel]
Having sporophylls bearing both megasporangia and microsporangia. See. BISEXUAL, HERMAPHRODITE, (Alt. AMPHISPORANGIATE)
AMEROSPORE
n [Gk. a, without; meros, part; sporos, seed]
(AMEROCONIDIUM q.v.) A plain and usually unidentifiable, spherical or oval single-celled non-septate asexual fungal spore with a length:width ratio of less than 15:1 and without significant curvature.
AMPHIGYNOUS
a [Gk. amphi, both; gyne, woman]
In fungi, having an antheridium(collar like male gametangium) through which the oogonium(female reproduction organ) initially grows.
AMPHISPORANGIATE
a [Gk. amphi, both; sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel]
Having sporophylls bearing both megasporangia and microsporangia. See. Bisexual, hermaphrodite, Alt. AMBISPORANGIATE
AMPHITROPOUS
a [Gk. amphi, both; trope, turning]
Of ovules attached near its middle, half-inverted, with the hilum in the middle of one side.
AMPLEXICAUL
a L. amplecti, to embrace; caulis, stem]
(of leaves) The leaves seems to clasp the stems of the plant. Image /leafshapes/80?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
AMPULLA
n [L. ampulla, flask]
Amphulla has several meanings, but basically it is a small saclike growth at the end of a tube. It is also an ancient Roman two-handled bottle for wine, oils etc. The submerged bladder of Utricularia(Bladderworth). In humans the rectal ampulla is the dilated(enlarged) portion of the rectum just above the anal canal. The enlarged point where the ducts from the liver and pancreas come together and lead into the duodendum. An enlargement at one end of each of the semicircular canals of the inner ear that senses movement.
AMPULLIFORM
a [L. ampulla, flask; forma, shape]
Sac or flask like in shape.
ANAEROBIC
a [Gk. an, without; aer, air; bios, life]
Pertaining to an organism that can respire without the presence of oxygen or conditions where there is no oxygen.
ANAL
a [L. anus, anus]
Situated at or near the anus or posterior ventral fin of fishes, or the margin and vein of insects wings or the posterior ventral scute(scale) of reptiles.
ANAMORPH
n [Gk. ana, backward; morphe, form].
In the naming of sexual and non-sexual states of the fungi, it is the part of the life cycle that produces asexual spores. cf. TELEOMORPH
ANASTOMOSIS
n [Gk. ana, up to; stoma, mouth]
The union of separate parts or spaces, so they can communicate, of a branching system forming a network, such as the veins of a leaf, blood vessels, or a river and its branches. It can be natural or created such as surgical connection of blood vessels or intestines.
ANATROPOUS
a [Gk. anatrope, overturning]
Of ovules bent over through 180 degrees to lie alongside its seed-stalk.
ANDROECIUM
n [Gk. aner, male; oikos, house]
All the male organs of a flower the stamens Image /flowerinfos/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ANDROGYNOPHORE
n [Gk. aner, male; gyne female]
A column on which stamens and carpels are borne. Part which bears the hermaphrodite sexual organs of a flower.
ANEMONE-CENTRED
a [ Gk. anemone, windflower]
Flowers or flowerheads in which the central petals or flowers (modified stamens) form a cushion-like mound and the outer rim of petals or ray florets are flat and spreading, as in some Chrysanthemums.
ANGIOSPERM
n [Gk. anggeion, vessel; sperma, seed]
A flowering plant producing seeds enclosed in an ovary.
ANHYDROBIOTE
n [Gk. an, without; hydor, water; bios, life]
a nematode that is capable of dehydration of up to 98 percent of its body water enabling it too survive for several months without water.
ANNELLIDE
n [Gk. annula, ring; edios, form]
(ANNELLOPHORE q.v.) The spore-bearing cell which is marked by a ring or collar on its wall where the spore was produced.
ANNELLOCONIDIA
n [Gk. annula, ring; konis, dust]
an asexual spore produced by a cell(annellide) which is marked by a ring or collar on its wall where the spore was produced.
ANNELLOHORE
n [Gk. annula, ring; pherein, to bear]
The spore-bearing cell(annellide) which is marked by a ring or collar on its wall where the spore was produced.
ANNUAL
n [L. annus, year ]
A plant that completes its life cycle (germination-flowering-seeding-dying) in one growing season.
ANTHER
n [Gk. antheros, flowering]
The part of a flower that produces pollen usually borne on the terminal part of the male organ(stamen). Image /flowerinfos/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ANTHESIS
n [Gk, anthe, flower]
The period of flowering: from the opening of the flower bud to the setting of the seed.
ANTHOCYANIN
n [Gk. anthos, flower; kyanos, dark blue]
The pigment usually responsible for pink, red, purple, violet and blue colors in flowering plants.
ANTHRANOSE
GK.[Anthrax, Charcoal, L.Os, that who abhors]
A term given to plant diseases caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum which attacks many plants from grass, vegetables, fruits, and trees. Image /pests/342?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ANTHRAQUINONES
n [Gk. anthrax, charcoal; Sp. quina, cinchona, bark]
Anthraquinone are orange or red organic compounds, comprised of three benzene rings, produced in plants, fungi, insects and lichens and is fundamental in the construction of many natural colours. It is used in dyes, and as animal repellant.
ANTIBIOTIC
n [Gk. anti, opposite; bios, life]
A synthetic or organic chemical that kills or restricts the growth of microorganisms.
ANTIBODY
n [Gk. anti, opposite; OE. bodig, body]
A protein produced in the blood of animals in response to the entry of the body of foreign materials and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralise the foreign materials.
ANTIGEN
n [Gk. anti, opposite; genera, birth]
A is a molecule, normally a protein in animals, recognised by the immune system, and induces the production of antibodies.
ANTIPETALOUS
a [Gk. anti, opposite; petalon, leaf]
Occurring opposite the petals, on the same radius, as distinct from alternating with the petals.
ANTIPYRETIC
n [Gk. anti, against; pyretos, fever]
A drug or medication that reduces the body temperature. cf.[FEBRIFUGE]
ANTISEPALOUS
a [Gk. anti, opposite; F. sepale, from; L, separare, separate]
Occurring opposite the sepals, on the same radius, as distinct from alternating with the sepals.
ANTISERUM
n [Gk. anti, against; L.serum, whey]
A blood serum containing antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been exposed to an antigen and is used in the prevention, treatment or diagnosis of disease in animals.
ANUS
n [L. anus, anus]
An opening of the alimentary canal, that is usually in the rear, through which excrement is voided.
APERTURATE
a [L. apertura, open]
(of pollen) Having one or more apertures.
APETALOUS
a [Gk. a, without; petalon, leaf]
Without petals.
APEX
n [L. apex, summit]
The tip of an organ the growing point.
APICAL
a [L. apex, summit]
At the tip of the summit or growing point. See Terminal.
APICAL
a [l. apex, summit]
applied to the cells or buds at the distal growing point. Usually applied to the dominance of the bud at the growing tip of a branch which prevents other buds on the branch from growing.
APICAL (TERMINAL) bud
a [L. apex, summit]
The topmost bud on a stem. See BUD.
APICAL-WEDGE GRAFTING
v [L. apex, summit]
Also known as cleft grafting, this method is used to propagate a number of shrubs. The stem of the rootstock is cut horizontally across, then the stem is cut vertically down the centre. A scion is then selected with a similar diameter to the stock. A "V" shaped wedge is then formed at the scion base. The scion is then pushed into the vertical cut on the rootstock and bound with tape. The tape may be removed when the two pieces have successfully grafted, and the newly formed plant potted or planted out. See GRAFTING.
APICULATE
a [Dim of L. apex, summit]
The leaf tip ends abruptly in a small pointed tip. Image /leafshapes/54?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
APLEROTIC
a [Gk. a, not; pleroun, to fill]
Not entirely filling a space. Usually applied to oospores not filling the oogonium. cf. PLEROTIC
APOCARPOUS
a [Gk. apo, away; karpus, fruit]
With carpels free from each other or only partially joined.
APOMIXIS
v [Gk. apo, away; mixis, a mixing]
Reproduction by seed formed without sexual fusion. (adj. apomictic) Akin to parthenogenesis, but including development from cells other than ovules.
APOTHECIUM
n [Gk. apotheke, store]
An open cup-like ascocarp, with or without a stalk, containing sacs in which sexual spores are produced, as in lichens and the fungi Ascomycetes.
APPRESSORIUM
n [L. ad, to; pressare, to press]
An A=adhesive disk, sucker, haustorium or germ tube that enables attachment or penetration of a host by a fungus.
APTEROUS
a [Gk. a, without; pteron, wing]
Wingless. Having no wing-like extentions on stems or petioles. alt EXALATE
AQUATIC PLANT
n [L. aqua, water]
Any plant that grows in water it may be free-floating, totally submerged, or rooted on the pond bottom with leaves and flowers above the water surface.
ARIL
n [F. arille, Sp. arillo, a small hoop]
A fleshy or sometimes hairy outgrowth from the hilum or funicle of a seed, . It may be fleshy, spongy or tufts of hairs.
ARISTATE
a [L. arista, awn]
(of leaves) The leaf has a well developed bristle or stiff awns. Image /leafshapes/55?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ARTEFACT
n [L.ars, art; factus, made]
ARTIFACT q.v. An object caused by the method of preparation and not part of the specimen. The remains of a man or animal made object.
ARTHROPOD
n [Gk. arthron, joint; pous, foot]
Any one of thousands of invertebrate animals having an exoskeleton (external skeleton) such as crustaceans, lobsters, crabs, spiders, mites, insects, centipedes, and millipedes, They are characterised by a segmented body with jointed appendages. They are members of the Phylum Arthropoda, which makes up most of the species in the world.
ARTHROSPORE
n [Gk. arthron, joint; sporos seeed]
ARTHROCONIDIUM q.v. Asexual spores formed by segmentation of the hyphae.
ARTIFACT
n [L.ars, art; factus, made]
ARTEFACT q.v. An object caused by the method of preparation and not part of the specimen. The remains of a man or animal made object.
ASCOCARP
n [Gk. ascos, bag; karpos, fruit]
SPOROCARP, SPORANGIOCARP q.v. The sexual fruiting body of a fungus in the Phylum Ascomycete(Ascomycota). The Ascocarp contains the asci and ascospores.
ASCOMYCETE
n [Gk. askos, bag; mykes, fungus]
ASCOMYCOTA q.v. Originally a class now a Phylum of fungi that produces sexual spores(scospores) in an asci.
ASCOMYCOTA
n [Gk. askos, bag; mykes, fungus]
ASCOMYCETE q.v. Originally a class now a Phylum of fungi that produces sexual spores(scospores) in an asci.
ASCOSPORE
n [Gk. askos, bag;sporos, seed]
A sexually produced fungal spore formed within an ascus of a fungi in the Phylum ascomycetes. Ascospores have a haploid number of chromosomes and are formed by meiosis.
ASCUS
n [Gk. askos, bag]
The sack-like cells, in an ascocarp, that produces ascospores .
ASEPALUS
a [L. a, without; F. sepale, from; L, separare, separate]
Without sepals
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
v [Gk. a, without; L. sexus, sex]
A form of reproduction not involving fertilization and in propagation often involving mechanical methods (see Vegetative propagation).
ASYMETRICAL
a [Gk. asymmetros, disproportionate]
(of leaves) The leaves are uneven at the base, like the Begonia leaf. Image /leafshapes/35?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ATTENUATE
a [L. attendare, to thin]
(of leaves) Leaves gradually tapering to a point. Image /leafshapes/72?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
AURICLE
n [L. auricula, small ear]
Small ear-like projections at the base of a leaf or leaf blade or bract, especially in grasses. (adj. auriculate) Image /leafshapes/73?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
AUTOECIOUS
a [Gk. Auto, self; oikos, house]
(Of plants, esp mosses) having male and female reproductive organs on the same plant. Of an organism that can complete its life cycle in one host. Alt[AUTECIC, AUTECIOUS,AUTOXENOUS,AMETOECIOUS]
AUTOTOXICITY
a [Gk. Auto, self; toxin, poison]
Of a substance produced by an organism that also kills it.
AUXINS
n [Gk. auxein, to increase]
Naturally occurring or artificially synthesized plant growth substances controlling shoot growth, root formation, and other physiological processes in plants such as phototropism.
AVIRULENT
a [GK a,not; L. virus, poison]
Of a pathogen that does not affect a host.
AWN
n [Icel. ogen, chaff]
A stiff, bristle-like extension to an organ, usually at the tip or back of the lemma or glume of a grass inflorescence.
AXENIC
a [Gk. axenos, inhospitable]
Of a culture medium that only has one species. Alt.[STERILE].
AXIL
n [L. axilla, armpit]
The upper angle between a leaf and a stem or between a main stem and a lateral branch, or between a stem and a bract. (See also BUD: AXILLARY BUD.)
AXILE PLACENTATION
v [L. axilla, armpit; placenta, flat cake]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne on placentas on the central axis of an ovary that has two or more locules
AXILLARY
a [L. axilla, armpit]
Pertaining to the organs in the axil, eg the buds, flowers or inflorescence.
AXILLARY BUD
n [L. axilla, armpit]
A bud that occurs in an axil. See BUD.
AXIS
n [L. axis, axle]
The main or central stem of a herbaceous plant or of an inflorescence. Fundementally the central line of a structure.
B
BACCATE
a [L. bacca, berry]
Berry-like.
BACK-BULB
n [O.E. baec, back; Gk. bolbos,bulbous root]]
Usually of orchids a dormant, old pseudobulb without leaves.
BACTERIA
a [Gk. Bakterion, small rod; L. caedere, to kill]
Bacteria are microscopic organisms with single cells that do not have a nucleus, but do have DNA and multiply mainly by fission. They do have sexual processes that usually produce spores. They are the most abundant life forms on the earth and are found in and around everything. In the gut of animals they break down food to release nutrients. Some cause major diseases, but the majority are benign. alt.[SCHIZOMYCETES]
BACTERICIDE
a [Gk. Bakterion, small rod; L. caedere, to kill]
Of a substance that kills bacteria. Alt.[BACTERIOCIDAL]
BACTERIOCIN
a [Gk. bakterion, small rod; L. cide, to kill]
An antibacterial substance, usually a protein, produced by certain bacteria that is harmful to another bacteria strain in the same family.
BALLED
v [O.N. ballr, ball]
1) Of trees and shrubs that have been lifted and had their root ball wrapped in hessian or other material to keep it intact during transplanting. 2) A flower that does not open properly and rots when still in bud.
BALLISTOSPORES
n [Gk. ballein, to throw; spores seed]
Asexual spores that are suddenly ejected. Alt. BALLOSPORES
BAR
n [Gk. baros, pressure]
A unit of pressure equal to 100000pascals
BARE-ROOT
a [O.E. baer, naked; O.N. rot, food plants]
Of plants sold with their roots bare of soil.
BARK-RINGING
v [Dan. barh, bark]
The removal of a thin(1/4 inch max) ring of bark from the trunk or branches of certain fruit trees, to reduce vigorous growth and to encourage fruit cropping. Also known as "girdling".
BASAL
a [L. basis, base]
pertaining to the base or point of attachment. The foundations.
BASAL PLACENTATION
v [L. basis, base; placenta, flat cake]
Having the placenta at the base of the ovary
BASAL PLATE
n [L. basis, base]
The compressed stem part of a bulb.
BASAL STEM CUTTING
n [L. basis, base]
A cutting taken from the base of a (usually herbaceous) plant as it begins to produce growth in spring. See also: Cutting.
BASE DRESSING
v [L. bassus, short]
Is an application of fertilizer or humus (manure, compost, etc.) applied to or dug into the soil prior to sowing or planting.
BASIDIUM
n [Gk. basis, base; idion, dim]
I Basidiomycetes, a cell on the fruiting body that produces asexual spores by meiosis. plu.BASIDIA
BASIDOSPORE
n [Gk. basis, base; sporos, seed]
A haploid spore produced on a basidium after meiosis.
BASIFIXED
a [L. basis, base]
Having anthers attached at the base to the filament, and therefore lacking independent movement. cf dorsifixed
BASIFUGE
n [L. basis, base; fugere, to flee]
A plant unable to tolerate basic solil. Alt. CALCIFUGE, a. OXYPHILOUS. See CALCICOLE, SILICOLE.
BASIPETAL
a [L. basis, base; petere, to seek]
Of organs, usually flowers developing from the apex to the base. With the oldest at the apex and the youngest at the base. cf ARCOPETAL.
BASTARD TRENCHING
v [L. bastum, packsaddle]
With this method of digging you do the same as with double digging but you turn the soil at the bottom of the trench over using a fork to make it easier this has the effect of improving the subsoil and the overall drainage. .See Double digging.
BED SYSTEM
a [O.E. bedd, bed]
A method of planting vegetable crops in closely spaced rows, often in blocks or narrow beds for easy access.
BEDDING PLANTS
n [O.E. bedd, bed]
Annuals and biennials (or plants grown as such) raised almost to maturity and then planted out, "bedded out", often in large blocks for temporary display.
BERRY
n [O.E. berie, berry]
A fleshy fruit without a stony layer, usually containing many seeds.
BETACYANINS
n [L. beta, beet; Gk. kyanos, dark blue ]
A group of red pigments found mainly in plants of the plant order Chenopodiales. They are nitrogen-containing compounds responsible for the red colour of beetroot, some flowers and some cacti. See[BETALAINS, BETAXANTHINS] Both betacyanins and betaxanthins are classed as BETALAINS.
BETALAINS
n [L. beta, beet;]
Red and yellow alkaloid pigments present in members of the Caryophyllales plants. It is an antioxidant first discovered in beetroot. See BETACYANINS, BETAXANTHINS
BETAXANTHINS
n [Gk. beta, second; xanthos, yellow]
A group of yellow pigments chemically similar to betacyanins and are restricted to the same plant order Chenopodiales. Both betacyanins and betaxanthins are classed as betalains . See [BETACYANINS, BETALAINS] Both betacyanins and betaxanthins are classed as BETALAINS.
BI-
a [L. bis, twice]
A prefix meaning two or twice.
BICARPELLATE
a [L. bis, twice; Gk. karpos, fruit]
An ovary with two carpels.
BIENNIAL
n [L. bis, twice; annus, year]
A plant that flowers and dies in the second growing season after germination.
BIFID
a [L. bis, twice; findere, to split]
Forked having a deep fissure near to the middle line.
BIFLAGELLATE
a [L. bis, twice; flagellum, whip]
Having two flagella.
BIGUTTULATE
a [L. bis, twice; gutta, drop]
Of cells or spores, containing two (usually) oil guttules(droplets).
BILABIATE
a L. bis, twice; labium, lip]
A corolla with a clearly distinguished labrum and labium. Two-lipped.
BINUCLEATE
a [L. Bis, twice; nucleus, kernel]
Of Cells, containing two nuclei.
BIOCONTROL
n [Gk. bios, life; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll]
The use of one or more type of living organism(BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT/S) to control another living organism or habitat. Alt.[BIOLOGICAL CONTROL]
BIOCONTROL AGENT
n [Gk. bios, life; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll; agere, do]
An organism, insect, animal or plant used to control something that has become a unwanted pest. Alt.[BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT]
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
n [Gk. bios, life; logos, discourse; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll]
The use of one or more type of living organism(BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT/S) to control another living organism or habitat. Alt.[BIOCONTROL]
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT
n [Gk. bios, life; logos, discourse; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll; agere, do]
An organism, insect, animal or plant used to control something that has become a unwanted pest. Alt.[BIOCONTROL AGENT]
BIOTIC AGENT
n [Gk. bios, life; L. agere, do]
One life form used to control another life form or habitat. Most biotic agents are PATHOGENS.
BIPINNATE
a [L. bis, twice; pinna, feather]
A pinnate leaf with separate small stalks that have leaflets Image /leafshapes/44?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
BIPOLAR
a [L. bis, twice; polus, pole]
Having located at two ends of an object or cell. Sexual compatibility in some fungi spores where two types of spores are produced. Located at both north and south poles of the earth. Alt.[DIPOLAR]
BISERIAL, BISERIATE
a [L. bis, twice; series, rows]
In two rows.
BISEXUAL
a [L. bis, twice; sexus, sex]
Flowers having both male and female reproductive organs in a single flower. see hermaphrodite, amphisporangiate, ambisporangiate, unisexual
BLADE
n [A.S. blaed, leaf]
The flattened part of a leaf the lamina
BLANCH
v [O.F. blanc, white]
To exclude light from developing leaves or stems in order to keep the plant tissue white, soft and palatable.
BLASTOCONIDIUM
n [Gk. blastos,bud; konis, dust; idium, dim]
A conidium produced by budding as seen in yeasts such as Candida and Cryptococcus spp. Alt.[BLASTOSPORE]
BLASTOSPORE
n [Gk. blastos, bud; sporos, seed]
A conidium produced by budding as seen in yeasts such as Candida and Cryptococcus spp. Alt.[BLASTOCONIDIUM]
BLEED
v [O.E. bledan, (rel. to blood)]
To lose sap through a cut or wound on a plant.
BLIGHT
n [A.S. blaecan, to grow pale]
A sudden, severe and extensive discolouration, wilting and rotting of plant parts caused by a fungus. e.g. Potato Blight.
BLIND
a [O.E. of Gmc origin]
A plant that fails to produce flowers, or a stem or bulb in which the growing point has been damaged.
BLOOM
n [O.N. blom, blossom]
1) A flower or blossom. 2) A waxy, white or bluish-white coating on a stem, leaf, or fruit.
BLOTCH
n [ON. bletter, blot]
A symptom of a fungal or bacterial disease charactised by irregular shaped spots on plants.
BLOWN
a [O.E. blowan, of Gmc origin, rel. to bloom and blssom]
Of flowers or hearted vegetables that are past full maturity and are fading.
BOG
n [Cel. bog, soft]
1}) A community on very wet acid peaty soil. 2) An area of very soft wet muddy ground. See Fen.
BOG PLANT
n [Ir. bog, soft]
A plant whose natural habitat is soil that is permanently damp, or one that thrives in such conditions.
BOLE
n [L. bolus, clod]
1) The trunk of a tree from ground level to the first major branch. 2) A fine reddish clay containing iron oxide.
BOLT
v [M.E. bolt, to run away]
To produce flowers and seed prematurely.
BOSTRYX
n [Gk. bostrychos, curl]
A cymose inflorescence with successive branches on one side usually causing it to curled like a spring. It is also called a helicoid cyme. Image /flowerinfos/38?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
BOTRTOSE
a [Gk. botrys, bunch of grapes]
Racemose arrangement. Like a bunch of grapes.
BRACT
n [L. bractea, thin metal plate]
A modified, often protective, leaf at the base of a flower or flower cluster. Bracts may or may not resemble normal leaves, or be small and scale-like, or large and brightly coloured. Usually used in connection with flowers, it is not actually a part of the flower. Often, it is strikingly colored leaves which looks like part of the inflorescence, like in the Pointsetta flowers.
BRACTEOLE
n [L. btacteola, thin metal leaf]
A small leaf-like organ, occurring along the length of a flower stalk, between a true subtending bract and the calyx
BRANCH
n [L. branca. paw]
A shoot arising from the main stem or trunk of a woody plant.
BRANCH WHORL
a [l.l. branca, paw; A.S. hweorfan, to turn]
A circular arrangement of leaves, flowers, etc., formed on the stem at the same height.
BRASSICA
n [L. cabbage]
A member of the cabbage family.
BREAK
n [O.E. brecan, of Gmc origin]
A shoot growing from an axillary bud.
BREEDING LINE
a [O.E. berdan, brood; L. linea, line]
A plant or animal strain, having some desirable characteristics, use in the propagation of a species or hybrid.
BROADCASTING
v [O.E. brad; O.N. kasta, to throw]
Scattering seed or fertilizer evenly over the ground, rather than in furrows or drills.
BROADLEAVED
a [O.E. brad; leaf, leaf]
Of trees or shrubs that bear broad, flat leaves rather than needle-like foliage.
BROMELIAD
n [L. bromelia after Swedish botanist Olaf Bromel]
A member of the family Bromeliaceae.
BUD
n [M.E. budde, bud]
A rudimentary or condensed shoot containing an embryonic leaf, leaf cluster, or flower. Adventitious bud: one produced abnormally, for example from the stem instead of from a leaf axil. Apical (or terminal) bud: the topmost bud on a stem. Axillary bud: one that occurs in an axil. Crown bud: a flower bud at the shoot tip, surrounded by other, usually smaller, flower buds. Fruit bud: one from which leaves and flowers (followed by fruits) develop. Growth bud: one from which only leaves or a shoot develop.
BUD GRAFTING
v [O.F. graffe, graft]
A form of grafting where a leaf with a bud is cut from one plant and place in contact with the cambium layer of another plant's rootstock to produce a plant with certain growth characteristics. See GRAFTING.
BUD UNION
n [M.E. budde, bud]
The point at which the scion bud unites with the rootstock. See GRAFTING.
BUDDING
v [M.E. budde, bud]
Bud-grafting, a form of grafting. See GRAFTING.
BUDDING TAPE
n [M.E. budde, bud]
Grafting tape used to protect a graft union during healing. It is usually impervious to water but let air through. This combination is perfect for grafting which requires a barrier to keep moisture in while allowing oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through.
BUDWOOD
n [M.E. budde, bud; A.S. wudu, wood]
A shoot cut from a tree to provide a scion for bud-grafting.
BUG
n [M.E. bugge , something frightening]
An insect or similar organism that is usually a nuisance or pest. A disease-causing microorganism. A defect or difficulty in a system or design. A defect in the code of a computer program. An enthusiasm or obsession. An electronic listening device, such as a hidden microphone or wiretap, used in surveillance.
BULB
n [L. bulbus, globular root]
A modified stem acting as a storage organ and consisting mainly of fleshy. more or less separate or tightly packed scale leaves (a modified bud) on a much reduced stem (basal plate).
BULB FIBRE
n [L. bulbus, globular root; fibra, band]
A mixture of peat. oystershell. and charcoal. in which bulbs are row in containers. Often without drainase holes.
BULBIL
n [L. bulbus, globular root]
A small bulb or bulb-like organ often produced on above-ground organs, often borne in a leaf axil. occasionally on a stem or in a flowerhead. See BULBLET.
BULBLET
n [L. BULBUS, GLOBULAR ROOT]
A small developing bulb produced from the basal plate of a mature bulb outside the tunic. See BULBIL, OFFSET.
BUSH
n [M.Du. busse, bush]
1) A small shrub. 2) An open centre fruit tree with a trunk of 36inches(90cm) or less.
BUSH FRUIT
n [M.Du. busse bush; L. frug, fruit]
Bush fruit: used of soft fruit bushes such as blackcurrants and gooseberries.
BUTYRACEOUS
a [L. butryum, butter]
Usually of a microorganism that produces a buttery consistency. Alt.[BUTYROUS]
BUTYROUS
a [L. butryum, butter]
Usually of a microorganism that produces a buttery consistency. Alt.[BUTYRACEOUS]
C
CACTUS
n [Gk. kaktos, cardoon]
A member of the, family Cactaceae, characterized by fleshy, water-storing tissue in the stems and areoles (specialized groups of cells) from which spines, flowers, and shoots develop.
CADUCOUS
a [L. caducus,falling]
Of leaves, calyx, stipules etc. falling off prematurely or easily. Alt.FUGACIOUS See DECIDUOUS
CALCICOLE
n [L. calx, lime, colere, to dwell]
Lime-loving a plant that thrives in alkaline soil. Alt. CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE, A. CALCOLOUS. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE.
CALCIFEROUS
a [L> calx, lime;ferre, to carry]
containing or producing lime salts. alt[CALCIGEROUS]
CALCIFUGE
n [L. calx, lime; fugere, to flee]
Lime-hating a plant that will not grow in alkaline soil. Alt. BASIFUGE, CALCIPHOBE, OXYPHITE, OXYTOPHYTE. See CALCICOLE, SILICOLE.
CALCIGEROUS
a [L. calx, lime; ger, to bear]
containing or producing lime salts. alt[CALCIFEROUS]
CALCIPETE
n [L. calyx, lime; petere, to go towards]
A plant that tend to thrive in alkaline soil. Alt. CALCIOCOLE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE. a. CALCOLOUS.
CALCIPHILE
n [L. calyx, lime; Gk. philein, to love]
A plant that only trives on calcareous soils. Alt. CALCIPHYTE, CALCICOLE See. CALCIPETE, GYPSOPHYTE, CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE. a. CALCOLOUS.
CALCIPHOBE
n [L. calyx, lime; Gk. phobos, fear]
Lime-hating a plant that will not grow in alkaline soil. Alt. BASIFUGE, OXYPHITE, OXYTOPHYTE. See CALCICOLE, SILICOLE.
CALCIPHYTE
n [L. calyx, lime; Gk. phyton, plant]
Lime-loving a plant that thrives in alkaline soil. Alt. CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE. a. CALCOLOUS.
CALLUS
n [L. callum, hard skin]
Protective tissue formed by plants over a wounded surface, particularly in woody plants but also at the base of cuttings.
CALYCLE
n [L. calyculus, little calyx]
A small cup shape leaf below the calyx. Alt CALYCULUS
CALYCULUS
n [L. calyculus, little calyx]
A group of leaf-like appendages below the calyx. Alt. CALYCLE
CALYX
n [Gk. kalyx, calyx]
(pl. calyces). The collective name for the sepals, the outer whorl of usually green, segments that enclose the flower in bud. Image /flowerinfos/13?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAMBIUM
n [L. cambium, change]
A layer of cells that occurs within the stem and roots which divides to form secondary permanent tissues. See also MERISTEM.
CAMPANULATE
a [L.L. campana, bell]
Bell-shaped
CAMPYLOTROPOUS
a [Gk.kampylos, curved; trope, turning]
(of ovules) Bent over through 90 degrees so that the. stalk (funicle) appears to be attached to the side of the ovule.
CANKER
n [L. CANCER, CANCER]
A dead, usually soft and sunken, area of stem, root or fruit. A sharply defined necrosis.
CANOPY
n [Gk. konopein, curtained bed]
The top layers of foliage growth of a tree or forest.
CAPILLARY MATTING
n [L. capillus, hair]
Matting made of synthetic fibre that acts like fine tubes and is used to draw water upwards by capillary action to irrigate pot plants on capillary beds or benches.
CAPITATE
n [L. caput, head]
Having a well formed head like a Sunflower.
CAPITULUM
n [L. capitulum, small head]
An inflorescence with many sessile flowers on a common flat or slightly curved main axis, as with the sunflower. Image /flowerinfos/6?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAPPING
v [O.E. caeppe, hood]
A crust that forms on the surface of soil damaged by compaction, heavy rain, or watering. See PAN.
CAPSULE
n [L. capsula, little box]
A fruit with more than one carpel, which opens when ripe.
CARBOHYDRATES
n [L. carbo, coal; Gk. hydor, watyer]
Molecules of sugars formed from carbon, oxygen and hydrogen such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, starches, and cellulose.
CARDINAL
a [L. cardo, hinge]
pertaining to that which something depends. For example growth temperatures at which an organism can grow.
CARLAVIRUS
n [ON. karl, man; L. virus, poisonus liquid]
A group of plant viruses, often known as "Carnation latent virus group" with filamentous DNA molecules. Although some Carla viruses cause mild symptoms and a few cause serious problems most of these viruses only infects a few hosts and are often symptomless and are often transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner, which means that the virus is not viable in the transmitter(aphids perhaps) for a long time.
CARNIVOROUS PLANT
n [L. carno, flesh; vorare, to devour]
A plant that is capable of catching and digesting small animals such as insects.
CARPEL
n [Gk. karpos, fruit]
The female part of the flower that contains the ovules several carpels in a flower are collectively known as the pistil.
CARPET BEDDING
n [L. carpere, pull to pieces]
The use of groups of closely planted, low-growing, colourful bedding plants in various designs.
CARUNCLE
n [L. caruncula, small piece of flesh]
(ADJ. CARUNCULATE) A fleshy, sometimes colored, out-growth near the hilum of some seeds.
CARYOPSIS
n [Gk. karyon, nut; opsis, appearance]
A dry fruit (achene) typical of grasses. Alt. GRAIN
CASING
n [OFr. casse, chest]
A covering of soil or moss over mushroom spawned compost.
CATENATE
a [L. catenatus, chained]
Developing in a chain-like manner. alt[CATENULATE]
CATENULATE
a [L. catenatus, chained]
Forming a chain-like series. alt[CATENATE]
CATERPILLAR
n [L. cattus, cat; pilosus, hairy]
The larvae of an insect, but this term is usually reserved for the larvae of moths and butterflies.
CATKIN
n [A.S. catkins, little cat]
A racemose (see Raceme) flower spike, or a spike-like inflorescence, with conspicuous bracts and small, often unisexual flowers lacking petals usually hanging downwards. Image /flowerinfos/18?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAUDA
n [L. cauda, tail]
A tail or tail-like appendage at the posterior end of a body or organ. Often applied to the posterior end of an aphid.
CAUDATE
a [L. cauda, tail]
(of leaves) The leaves seems to have a tail. Image /leafshapes/56?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAUDICLE
n [dim of L. cauda, tail]
The stalk of the pollinium in an orchid flower
CAULICOLOUS
a [L.caulis, stalk;colere, to inhabit]
Growing on the stem of a plant. Usually applicable to fungi.
CAUSAL AGENT
n [L. causa, motive; agere, to do]
An organism that causes a specific disease.
CELLULOLYTIC
a [L. cellula, small cell;Gk. lyen, to break down]
Having the ability to break down cellulose.
CENTRAL LEADER
n [L. centrum, center; A.S. leadan, to lead]
The central, usually upright stem of a tree.
CEOLOMYCETES
n [Gk. koilos, hollow; mycete, fungus]
Ceolomycetes are fungi that mainly exists as plant pathogens, saprobes or parasites. They are usually, but not exclusively, limited to hot humid environments. They produce a mass of conidiogenus cells which produce conidiomata which in turn produce conidia.
CERTIFIED STOCK
n [L. certus, certain; O.E. stoc, trunk]
Plants certified by the Goverment agency as free from certain pests and diseases.
CHASMOTHECIA
n [Gk. chasma, opening; theke, case]
New name for cleistothecium
CHILLING REQUIREMENT
v [O.E. cele, cold; L. requirere, seek]
The requirement of plants for a specific period of dormancy below a particular temperature in order for them to initiate flowering.
CHINESE LAYERING
v [O.F. lai]
An alternative name for air layering see Layering.
CHIP-BUDDING
v [ M.E. forcippian, to cut off; budde, bud]
Used to propagte hardwood cuttings, a non flowering bud is cut from the required plant and grafted onto a rootstock of similar size. See GRAFTING.
CHLAMYDOSPORE
n [Gk. chlamys, cloak; sporos, seed]
A thick walled conidia or resting spore, usually of fungi.
CHLORITIC
a [Gk. chloros, pallid]
Pertaining to plants affected by chlorosis.
CHLOROPHYLL
n [Gk. chloros, grass, green; phyllon, leaf]
The green plant pigment that is mainly responsible for light absorption and hence photosynthesis in plants.
CHLOROSIS
n [Gk. chloros, pallid]
An abnormal condition caused by genetic factors or the lack of light, magnesium or iron deficiency in the nutrients of plants, which leads to a yellowing of the normal green leaves. It is also a form of anaemia in humans.
CHROMOSOME
n [Gk. chroma, colour; soms, body]
A bead-like string structure of a coiled DNA molecule containing many genes and other elements, which is only visible when it becomes more tightly coiled during cell division.
CHRYSALIS
n [Gk. chrysallis, golden thing]
The case of the pupa of an insect, usually applied to butterfly pupa, inside of which the insect completes its metamorphosis.
CILIATE
a [L. cilium, eyelid]
(of leaves) having a margin or fringe of small hairlike projections. Image /leafshapes/22?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CINCINNUS
a [L. cincinnus, curl]
A monochasial, cymose inflorescence with branches alternating from one side of the vertical axis to the other normally curved to one side. Also called a scorpiod cyme as it looks like a scorpion. Image /flowerinfos/27?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CIRCUMSCISSILE
a [L. circum, around;scindere, to cut]
Opening all round by a transverse split.
CIRROSE
a [L. cirrus, curl]
(of leaves) The leaves have tendril-like tips or tips that end with a curl. This is the same as cirrhose leaves. alt. CIRROUS Image /leafshapes/57?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CLADDODE
n [Gk. klados, sprout]
A flattened stem which has assumed the form and function of a leaf.
CLAMP
v [O.E. clamm, clam]
A method for storing root crops outdoors. The crops are heaped up and protected against frost by layers of straw and soil a "chimney" hole filled with straw provides ventilation.
CLAMP CONNECTION
n [ME. clam, clam; L. con, together, nectere, bind]
In many basidiomycete fungi a characteristic outgrowth seen in the dividing dikaryotic hyphae, which aids the movement the divided nuclei each of the new cells. This only happens at the tips of the hyphae where they are dividing.
CLAVATE
a [L. clava, club]
Club shaped, thickened at one end.
CLAW
n [A.S. clawu, claw]
The narrow basal part of some petals and sepals.
CLAW
n [A.S. clawu, claw]
In orchids the lip is attached near the apex of the ovary by a slender connecting structure called a "claw."
CLEFT
a [M.E. clift, cleft]
(of leaves) The leaf tips seems to be split in two Image /leafshapes/58?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CLEISTOCARP
n [Gk. kleistos, closed; karpos, case]
(CLEISTOTHECIUM, q.v.) A closed ascocarp where the spores are produced internally and are released by the breakdown of the enclosure.
CLEISTOGAMIC
a [Gk. kleistos, closed; gamos, marriage]
(CLEISTOGAMOUS q.v.) (of flowers) Self-pollinating, without the flower ever opening.
CLEISTOTHECIUM
n [Gk. kleistos, closed; theke, case]
A closed ascocarp where the spores are produced internally and are released by the breakdown of the enclosure. alt CLEISTOCARP
CLIMBER
n [O.E. climban, climb]
A plant that climbs using other plants or objects as support: selfclinging climbers by means of supporting, adventitious, aerial roots or adhesive tendril tips tendril climbers by coiling their leaf stalks, leaf 'tendrils, or modified terminal shoots twining climbers by coiling their stems. Scandent, scrambling, and trailing climbers produce long, usually flexuous, stems that grow over or through plants or other supports they attach themselves only loosely, if at all, to the support. Image /plants/478?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CLOCHE
n [L. clocca, bell]
A small, usually portable, structure made of clear plastic or glass, normally in a metal framework used to protect early crops on open ground and to warm the soil before planting. Originally it was a bell shaped glass jar used to protect certain plants. (See also Floating cloche.)
CLONE
v [Gk, klon, twig]
1) A group of genetically identical plants produced by vegetative propagation or asexual reproduction. 2) An individual plant in such a group.
COALESCE
v [L. cum, with; alscere, to grow]
To come together and grow as one.
COB
n [M.E. cob, a strong man or leader]
An inflorescence with a thickened main axis and many small sessile flowers, as is the case with corn.
COCOON
n [F. cocon, cocoon]
The protective covering of a silky nature around the pupae and or eggs of insects.
COENOCYTIC
n [Gk. koinos, common; kytos, hollow]
Plant tissue made up of cells without cell walls which occurs in slime molds, some fungi and algae.
COENZYME
n [L. cum, with; Gk. en, in;zyme, leaven]
A non protien substance which is loosely bound to the protien part of an enzyme and is necessary for the function of the enzyme. cf. [ENZYME]
COLD FRAME
n [O.E. cald, cold; framian, be useful]
A glazed, box-like, unheated structure, made from brick, wood, or glass, with a hinged or removable glass or clear plastic light, used to protect plants from excessive cold.
COLLAR
n [L. colare, band for the neck]
1) The part of a plant where the roots meet the stem also known as the "neck". 2) The part of a tree where a main branch meets the trunk (or a side branch meets a main branch).
COLLARETE
n [ME. coler, collar]
A wavy line in the iris of the eye that divides the central pupillary zone from the peripheral ciliary zone and which can be seen on the surface of the iris.
COLLENCHYMA
n [Gk. kolla, glue; enchyma, infusion]
Supporting tissue for actively growing plant structures, which consists of living cells that have been stretched with thickened cell walls. It is commonly found in the cortex of herbaceaous stems.
COLONY
n [L.. colonia, farm]
Any collection of organisms living together. Often applied to bees, wasps and microorganisms on culture medium.
COLPATE
a [Gk. kolpos,fold]
Pollen having one or more colpi (oblong-elliptic apertures in the pollenwall).
COLUMELLA
n [L. columella, small column]
The central column of sterile cells in the center of of the capsules of mosses. The central core in a root cap. The central pillar in some corals. The axis of the cochlea in the ear. The cartlilage connecting the drum with the inner ear of reptiles.
COLUMN
n [L. columna, pillar]
The combined style and stigma of a flower, typically of orchids.
COMPANION PLANTING
v [L. cum together; panis, bread]
Positioning plants together that are reputed to have a beneficial effect on neighbouring plants by discouraging pests and diseases or improving growth.
COMPOSITAE
n [L. com, together; poinere, to place]
Having flowers with a capitulum made up of florets. The daisy family including dandilion, thistles etc.
COMPOST
n [L. com, together; ponere, to place]
1) A potting medium comprising a mixture of loam, sand, peat, leaf mould, or other ingredients. 2) An organic material, rich in humus, formed by decomposed plant remains, and other organic matter, used as a soil improver or mulch.
COMPOUND
a [L. com, together; ponere, to place]
Consisting of several parts, eg a leaf with several leaflets or an inflorescence with more than one group of flowers.(See Simple.)
CONE
n [Gk. konos, cone]
The densely clustered bracts and flowers of conifers and some flowering plants, often developing into a woody, seed-bearing structure as in the familiar pine cone.
CONIDIA
n [Gk. konis, dust; idion, dim]
Plural of CONIDIUM
CONIDIOMA [-ATA]
n [Gk. koilos, hollow; myKES, fungus]
A fruiting structure, that produce conidia and conidiophores, created from a mass of specialised cells (conidiogenous).
CONIDIOPHORE
n [Gk. konis, dust; idion, small; pherein, to bear]
A modified hypha in fungi which bears conidia.
CONIDIOSPORE
n [Gk. konis, dust; idium, dim; sporos, seed]
A asexual spore produced by constriction of a short hypha arising from the conidiophore. They are haploid and un-enclosed cells that can develop into a new organism if conditions are right. q.v.[CONIDIUM]
CONIDIUM
n [Gk. konis, dust; idion, dim]
A asexual spore produced by constriction of a short hypha arising from the conidiophore. They are haploid and un-enclosed cells that can develop into a new organism if conditions are right. q.v.[CONIDIOSPORE]
CONIFER
n [L. conus, cone; ferre, to bear]
Gymnosperms, usually evergreen trees and shrubs that are distinguished from flowering plants (Angiosperms) by the naked ovules that are not enclosed in an ovary but are often borne in cones.
CONJUGATE
v [L. conjugare, to join together]
To unite, as in zygospheres pairs forming zygospore.
CONNATE
a [L. cum, together; gnatus, born]
Joined or attached to; applied to similar organs fused during development, eg stamens fused into a tube. cf ADNATE
CONNECTIVE
n [L. connectere, to bind together]
(of stamens) The tissue connecting the pollen sacs of an anther.
CONTACT ACTION
v [L. contactus, touch; action, action]
The action of a pesticide or weedkiller that kills or damages the pest or weed by direct contact.
CONTORTED
a [L. con, together, torquere, twist]
Sepals and petals twisted in the bud so that they overlap on one side only, Spirally twisted.
CONVOLUTE
a [L. cum together; volvere, to wind]
Rolled together.
COPPICING
v [L. colpus, blow]
The annual pruning back of trees or shrubs close to ground level to produce vigorous, usually decorative, shoots. cf COPSE
COPSE
n [L. colpus, a blow ]
A shortened form of coppice. A small group of trees.
CORDATE
a [L. cord, heart]
(of leaves) Heart-shaped . Image /leafshapes/2?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CORDON
n [L. chorda, gut, string]
A trained plant (usually a fruit tree) generally restricted to one main stem by rigorous pruning. A single cordon has one main stem, a double, or "U", cordon has two, and a multiple cordon, three or more stems.
CORIACEOUS
a [L. corium, leather]
Leathery.
CORM
n [Gk. kormos, trunk]
A bulb-like, underground, swollen stem or stem base, often surrounded by a papery tunic. like the Gladiola. A corm is replaced annually by a new corm that develops from a terminal, or lateral, bud.
CORMEL
n [Gk. kormos, trunk]
A small corm developing around a mature corm, usually outside the main corm tunic, as in Gladiolus.
CORMLET
n [Gk. kormos, trunk]
A small corm arising at the base (and usually within the old tunic) of a mature one. See OFSET.
CORNICLE
n [L. cornicumum, little horn]
An abdominal, bi-lateral wax secreting structure on aphids.
COROLLA
n [L. corolla, small crown]
The interior whorl of the perianth of a flower, comprising several free or fused petals. The petals of a flower as a whole. Image /flowerinfos/15?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
COROLLA LOBES CUSPS
n [L. corolla,small crown; lobus, lobe; cuspis, point]]
The free part of a stunted whorl of petals.
COROLLA TUBE
n [L. corolla, small crown; tubus, pipe]
The connected part of a stunted whorl of petals.
CORONA
n [L. corona, crown]
A crown-shaped, funnel-shaped, or trumpet-shaped union growth of the perianth of certain flowers, such as the Daffodil or the Cobea scandens. Also called a crown. Image /flowerinfos/34?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CORTEX
n [L. cortex, bark]
adj[cortical) The outer superficial part of an organ. The thick outer covering of plants. tissue surrounding the vascular bundles in stems and roots.
CORY-MBOSE
n [Gk. korymbos, cluster of flowers]
Arranged in a corymb Comb-like.
CORYMB
n [Gk. korymbos, cluster of flowers]
A rounded or flat-topped inflorescence of racemose type, in which the lower (outer) flower stalks (pedicels) are longer than the upper (inner) ones, so that all the flowers appear flat or slightly domed. Image /flowerinfos/4?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
COTYLEDON
n [Gk. kotyledon, cup]
A seed leaf the first leaf or leaves to emerge from the seed after germination, often markedly different from mature leaves. Flowering plants (Angiosperms) are classified into monocotyledons (one) and dicotyledons (two) depending on bow many cotyledons are contained in the mature seed. ln Gymnosperms (conifers) they are often produced in whorls.
CRENATE
a [L. crena, notch]
(of leaf margins) Round-toothed or scalloped. q.v. GIMPED. Image /leafshapes/23?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CRENULATE
a [L. crenula, notch]
(of leaves)Finely crenate. Small rounded tooth edges or small scalloped edges. Image /leafshapes/23?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CRETACEOUS
a [L. creta, chalk; ic, forming adjective]
The Cretaceous is a geologic period from about 146 TO 65 million years ago. It is the third and last period of the Mesozoic era after the Triassic and Jurassic period. The Cretaceous period, usually abbreviated K, and is also known as the chalky period. The end of the Cretaceous defines the boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, when there was a mass extinction of life forms event now known as the K-T extinction event or the K–T boundary, which is a thin band of sedimentation found all around the the world. T is the abbreviation for the Tertiary Period which is the first period in the Cenozoic era. [TRIASSIC, JURASSIC]
CROCKS
n [O.E. crocca, of Gmc origin]
Broken pieces of clay pot, used to cover the drainage holes of pots in order to provide free drainage and air circulation to the root system and to prevent the growing medium from escaping from or blocking the drainage holes.
CROP ROTATION
v [M.E. croppe, craw]
A system in which vegetable crops are grown on different sections of a plot on a three- or four year cycle to minimize the build-up of soil-borne pests and diseases in one section.
CROSS-FERTILIZATION
v [O.F. crois, cross; L. fertilis, fertile]
The fertilization of the ovules of a flower with pollen from a flower from the same or another tree of the same species or genus.
CROSS-POLLINATION
v [O.F. crois, cross; L. pollen, fine flour]
The transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower on another plant the term is often loosely applied to cross-fertilization. Cf . SELF-POLLINATION, CROSS-FERTILIZATION
CROWN
n [L. corona, crown]
1) The basal part at soil level of a herbaceous plant where roots and stems join and from where new shoots are produced. 2) The upper, branched part of a tree above the bole.
CROWN BUD
n [L. corona, crown; M.E. budde, bud]
A flower bud at the shoot tip, surrounded by other, usually smaller, flower buds. See BUD.
CROWN BUD
n [L. corona, wreath]
A flower bud at the shoot tip, surrounded by other, usually smaller, flower buds. See BUD.
CROWN SHAFT
n [L. corona; O.E. sceaft, pole]
On palms, the green formation at the top of the trunk. Although it seems to be a continuation of the trunk, it is actually formed of intertwined boat-shaped bracts of palm fronds.
CULM
n [L. culmus, stalk]
The usually hollow stem of a grass or bamboo.
CULTIVAR
n [L. cultura, cultivation; varietas, variety]
A contraction of "cultivated variety" (abbreviated to cv.) a group (or one among such a group) of cultivated plants clearly distinguished by one or more characteristics and which retains these characteristics when propagated either asexually or sexually. Cf VARIETY
CULTURE
n [L. culture, cultivation; colere, to till]
The growing of microorganisms in or on a culture medium.
CULTURE MEDIUM
n [L. culture, cultivation; colere, to till; medium, midddle]
A substance in which microorganisms or tissues are grown or propagated. Usually applied to a gel-like substances which has all the nutrients and some sugars fro the growth of the tissue or organism.
CUNEATE
a [L. cuneatus, wedge shaped]
(OF LEAVES) The bases of these leaves are wedge shaped. Image /leafshapes/75?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CUPULATE
a [L.cupula, little tub]
having a cup like shape or a cupule.
CUPULE
n [L. cupula,little tub]
(adj. cupulate) A cup-shaped sheath, surrounding some fruits.
CUSPIDATE
a [L. cuspidare, to make pointed]
( of leaves) The leaf tips terminate in a point. Image /leafshapes/59?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CUTICLE
n [L. cuticula, thin skin]
An outer skin, the epidermis, especially when it is water repellent. The outer membrane of arthropods and nematodes.
CUTTING
n [unknown, probably Gmc.]
A portion of a plant (a leaf, shoot, root, or bud) that is cut off to be used for propagation. See also: BASAL STEM CUTTING, GREENWOOD CUTTING, HARDWOOD CUTTING, HEEL CUTTING, INTERNODAL CUTTING, LEAF CUTTING, LEAFBUD CUTTING, NODAL CUTTING, RIPEWOOD CUTTING, ROOT CUTTING, SENI-RIPE CUTTING, SOFTWOOD CUTTINGAND STEM CUTTING.
CYME
n [L. cyma, young sprout]
A usually flat-topped, determinate inflorescence in v central or terminal flower opens first. Image /flowerinfos/5?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CYMOSE
a [L. cyma young sprout]
Arranged in a cyme cyme-like manner.
CYPSELA
n [Gk. kypsele, hollow vessel]
A single-seeded fruit derived from a unilocular( one small compartment) inferior ovary .
CYST
n [Gk. kystis, bladder]
A bladder-like structure. The enclosing membrane around a spore or cell. A nematode artifact left by the dead remains of the female which usually contains eggs.
CYSTOLITH
n [Gk. kystis, bladder; lithos, stone]
A crystal or deposit of lime, within a cell.

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