Glossary Entries




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Name Origin Description Extra
A
ABAXIAL
a [L. ab, from; axis, axle]
A surface which is turned away from the stem or axis.
ACARICIDE
n [Gk. akari, mite; L. cidium, kill]
A chemical or other substance, such as organochlorine, permethrin, organophosphate or diatomaceous earth, used to kill or control mites
ACAULESCENT
a [Gk. a, without; kaulos, stalk]
Stemless or nearly so.
ACERVULUS
n [L.L. dim; acervus, heap]
a small asexual, pincushion-like fruiting body that burst through the epidermis of plants parasitised by fungi of order Melanconiales. It bears conidiophores (specialized filaments, or hyphae) that produces conidia (spores).
ACHENE
n [Gk. a, not; chainein, to gape]
A small, dry, single-seeded fruit, with the seed distinct from the fruit wall, that does not split open as in the sunflower seeds.
ACICULAR
a [L. acicula, small needle]
Narrow long and pointed as in pine leaves. Image /leafshapes/1?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ACID
n [L. acidus, sour]
(of soil or substances) With a pH value of less than 7. (See: ALKALINE and NEUTRAL.)
ACROPETAL
a [Gk. akros, summit; L. petere, to seek]
the development of tissues, organs or movement of hormones in plants, maturing from the base toward the apex, with the younger tissues at the apex.
ACTINOMYCETES
n [Gk. aktis, ray; mykes, fungus]
Bacteria, generally anaerobic, that produces a filamentous and branching growth pattern that usually results in an extensive threadlike structures. Many species occur in soil and are harmless; others are important disease-causing agents in plants and animals.
ACUMINATE
a [L.acumen, point]
(of leaves) The leaves are drawn out into a long tapering point. Image /leafshapes/52?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ACUTE
a [L. acutus, sharpened]
Having a sharp point. Image /leafshapes/53?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ADAXIAL
a [L. ad, to; axis, axle]
On the side facing or turned to the stem or axis.
ADNATE
v [L. ad, to; gnatus, born]
Joined to or closely attached to different or unlike organs, eg stamens, joined along its length, to the perianth; Leaves or stipules being closely attached to the petiole or stalk.
ADVENTITIOUS
a [L. adventitious, extraordinary]
Arising from places where growths do not normally occur for example, adventitious roots may arise from stems or an adventitious bud produced abnormally from the stem instead of from a leaf axil.
AECIDIOSPORE
n [l. aecidium, cup; Gk. sporos, seed]
(AECIOSPORE q.v.) A binucleate(dikaryotic) asexual spore of a rust fungus formed by the fusion of two uninucleate cells in a chain-like series in an aecium.
AECIUM
n [L. aecidium, cup]
A rust fungi fruiting body, usually cup shaped, producing bi-nucleate(dikaryotic) asexual spores.
AERATE
v [L. aris, air]
To allow air (oxygen carbon dioxide and nitrogen etc) to enter for example, using a spiked roller to aerate a lawn.
AERIAL ROOT
n [L. aris, air]
A root that originates above around level, usually to privide achorage on an epiphvte or to absorb atmospheric moisture.
AEROBIC
a [Gk. aer, air; bios, life]
A physiological process, such as respiration, carried out in the presence of oxygen. Often the ability of an organism to live in the presence of oxygen.
AESTIVATION
a [L. eastivus, of summer]
The arrangement of the parts of a flower, usually referring to sepals and petals within the bud. Often called aestivus of summer. It importance lies in the fact that in general the same mode of aestivation(involute, reduplicate etc.) is usually common in whole tribes or orders. It is to the flower-bud what vernation (vernus spring) is to the leaf-bud. cf.[VERNATION]
AETIOLOGY
n [Gk. aitia, cause; logos, discourse]
The science or study of the origin of causes. alt [ETIOLOGY]
AGAR
n [Mal. agag-agar, a seeweed]
A gel forming carbohydrate, obtained from red algae, used in making culture medium for plants, bacteria, yeast and fungi.
AIR LAYERING
v [L. aris, air]
A method of propagating plants by cutting a stem or branch, perhaps applying a hormone to the wound, wrapping the stem or branch with damp material or soil and covering with plastic or foil to encourage root formation, and finally removing the rooted stem or branch as an independent plant..
ALBUMEN
n [L. albumen, white of eggs]
The clear jelly-like substances that surrounds the yolk of an egg and provides nutrients, like protein, to the developing embryo. q.v.[ENDOSPERM]
ALEUROSPORE
n [Gk. aleuron, flour; sporos, seed]
ALEURISPORE,ALEURIOSPORE, ALEURIUM, ALEURIOCONIDIUM q.v. A terminal or lateral thallic conidium(asexual spore) that separates by the breakdown of the generating hypha or cell wall.
ALKALINE
a [Ar. al, the; qali, ash]
(of soil or substances) With a pH value of more than 7. (See: ACID and NEUTRAL.)
ALLANTIOD
a [GK. allas, sausage; eidos, form]
Shaped like a sausage. Often used to describe spores that are slightly curved, long with rounded ends.
ALLELE
n [allelon, one another]
An allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a locus(a specific position) on a specific chromosome. For example, the gene for blood type proteins(A,B and O) can each have slightly different DNA sequence. Each different (A,B and O) would be an allele.
ALLEOPATHY
n [Gk. allelon, one another; pathos, suffer]
Allelopathy is the beneficial or harmful effects of one plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi on another plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi by biochemical means.
ALLEOPATHY
n [Gk. allelon, one another; pathos, suffer]
Allelopathy is the beneficial or harmful effects of one plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi on another plant, algae, bacteria, coral or fungi by biochemical means.
ALLUVIAL
a [L. alluere, to wash]
Of soil deposited by finely divided materials laid down by running water.
ALPINE
a [L. Alpes, the Alps]
A plant that grows above the tree line in mountainous areas loosely applied to rock garden plants that may be grown at relatively low altitudes.
ALPINE HOUSE
n [L. Alpes, the Alps]
An unheated, well ventilated greenhouse used for cultivating alpine and bulbous plants.
ALTERNATING
a [L. alternus, one after the other]
An arrangement of leaves in which each leaf is attached to the stem one after the other, without a second leaf directly opposite it. alt[ALTERNUS, ALTERNA, ALTERNUM] Image /leafshapes/29?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ALTERNATIVE HOST
n [L. Alternus, one after another; hospes, host]
A plant species that acts as a host for a parasite, but which is not necessary for the parasite to complete its life process.
AMBISPORANGIATE
a [L. ambo, both; Gk. sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel]
Having sporophylls bearing both megasporangia and microsporangia. See. BISEXUAL, HERMAPHRODITE, (Alt. AMPHISPORANGIATE)
AMEROSPORE
n [Gk. a, without; meros, part; sporos, seed]
(AMEROCONIDIUM q.v.) A plain and usually unidentifiable, spherical or oval single-celled non-septate asexual fungal spore with a length:width ratio of less than 15:1 and without significant curvature.
AMPHIGYNOUS
a [Gk. amphi, both; gyne, woman]
In fungi, having an antheridium(collar like male gametangium) through which the oogonium(female reproduction organ) initially grows.
AMPHISPORANGIATE
a [Gk. amphi, both; sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel]
Having sporophylls bearing both megasporangia and microsporangia. See. Bisexual, hermaphrodite, Alt. AMBISPORANGIATE
AMPHITROPOUS
a [Gk. amphi, both; trope, turning]
Of ovules attached near its middle, half-inverted, with the hilum in the middle of one side.
AMPLEXICAUL
a L. amplecti, to embrace; caulis, stem]
(of leaves) The leaves seems to clasp the stems of the plant. Image /leafshapes/80?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
AMPULLA
n [L. ampulla, flask]
Amphulla has several meanings, but basically it is a small saclike growth at the end of a tube. It is also an ancient Roman two-handled bottle for wine, oils etc. The submerged bladder of Utricularia(Bladderworth). In humans the rectal ampulla is the dilated(enlarged) portion of the rectum just above the anal canal. The enlarged point where the ducts from the liver and pancreas come together and lead into the duodendum. An enlargement at one end of each of the semicircular canals of the inner ear that senses movement.
AMPULLIFORM
a [L. ampulla, flask; forma, shape]
Sac or flask like in shape.
ANAEROBIC
a [Gk. an, without; aer, air; bios, life]
Pertaining to an organism that can respire without the presence of oxygen or conditions where there is no oxygen.
ANAL
a [L. anus, anus]
Situated at or near the anus or posterior ventral fin of fishes, or the margin and vein of insects wings or the posterior ventral scute(scale) of reptiles.
ANAMORPH
n [Gk. ana, backward; morphe, form].
In the naming of sexual and non-sexual states of the fungi, it is the part of the life cycle that produces asexual spores. cf. TELEOMORPH
ANASTOMOSIS
n [Gk. ana, up to; stoma, mouth]
The union of separate parts or spaces, so they can communicate, of a branching system forming a network, such as the veins of a leaf, blood vessels, or a river and its branches. It can be natural or created such as surgical connection of blood vessels or intestines.
ANATROPOUS
a [Gk. anatrope, overturning]
Of ovules bent over through 180 degrees to lie alongside its seed-stalk.
ANDROECIUM
n [Gk. aner, male; oikos, house]
All the male organs of a flower the stamens Image /flowerinfos/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ANDROGYNOPHORE
n [Gk. aner, male; gyne female]
A column on which stamens and carpels are borne. Part which bears the hermaphrodite sexual organs of a flower.
ANEMONE-CENTRED
a [ Gk. anemone, windflower]
Flowers or flowerheads in which the central petals or flowers (modified stamens) form a cushion-like mound and the outer rim of petals or ray florets are flat and spreading, as in some Chrysanthemums.
ANGIOSPERM
n [Gk. anggeion, vessel; sperma, seed]
A flowering plant producing seeds enclosed in an ovary.
ANHYDROBIOTE
n [Gk. an, without; hydor, water; bios, life]
a nematode that is capable of dehydration of up to 98 percent of its body water enabling it too survive for several months without water.
ANNELLIDE
n [Gk. annula, ring; edios, form]
(ANNELLOPHORE q.v.) The spore-bearing cell which is marked by a ring or collar on its wall where the spore was produced.
ANNELLOCONIDIA
n [Gk. annula, ring; konis, dust]
an asexual spore produced by a cell(annellide) which is marked by a ring or collar on its wall where the spore was produced.
ANNELLOHORE
n [Gk. annula, ring; pherein, to bear]
The spore-bearing cell(annellide) which is marked by a ring or collar on its wall where the spore was produced.
ANNUAL
n [L. annus, year ]
A plant that completes its life cycle (germination-flowering-seeding-dying) in one growing season.
ANTHER
n [Gk. antheros, flowering]
The part of a flower that produces pollen usually borne on the terminal part of the male organ(stamen). Image /flowerinfos/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ANTHESIS
n [Gk, anthe, flower]
The period of flowering: from the opening of the flower bud to the setting of the seed.
ANTHOCYANIN
n [Gk. anthos, flower; kyanos, dark blue]
The pigment usually responsible for pink, red, purple, violet and blue colors in flowering plants.
ANTHRANOSE
GK.[Anthrax, Charcoal, L.Os, that who abhors]
A term given to plant diseases caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum which attacks many plants from grass, vegetables, fruits, and trees. Image /pests/342?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ANTHRAQUINONES
n [Gk. anthrax, charcoal; Sp. quina, cinchona, bark]
Anthraquinone are orange or red organic compounds, comprised of three benzene rings, produced in plants, fungi, insects and lichens and is fundamental in the construction of many natural colours. It is used in dyes, and as animal repellant.
ANTIBIOTIC
n [Gk. anti, opposite; bios, life]
A synthetic or organic chemical that kills or restricts the growth of microorganisms.
ANTIBODY
n [Gk. anti, opposite; OE. bodig, body]
A protein produced in the blood of animals in response to the entry of the body of foreign materials and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralise the foreign materials.
ANTIGEN
n [Gk. anti, opposite; genera, birth]
A is a molecule, normally a protein in animals, recognised by the immune system, and induces the production of antibodies.
ANTIPETALOUS
a [Gk. anti, opposite; petalon, leaf]
Occurring opposite the petals, on the same radius, as distinct from alternating with the petals.
ANTIPYRETIC
n [Gk. anti, against; pyretos, fever]
A drug or medication that reduces the body temperature. cf.[FEBRIFUGE]
ANTISEPALOUS
a [Gk. anti, opposite; F. sepale, from; L, separare, separate]
Occurring opposite the sepals, on the same radius, as distinct from alternating with the sepals.
ANTISERUM
n [Gk. anti, against; L.serum, whey]
A blood serum containing antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been exposed to an antigen and is used in the prevention, treatment or diagnosis of disease in animals.
ANUS
n [L. anus, anus]
An opening of the alimentary canal, that is usually in the rear, through which excrement is voided.
APERTURATE
a [L. apertura, open]
(of pollen) Having one or more apertures.
APETALOUS
a [Gk. a, without; petalon, leaf]
Without petals.
APEX
n [L. apex, summit]
The tip of an organ the growing point.
APICAL
a [L. apex, summit]
At the tip of the summit or growing point. See Terminal.
APICAL
a [l. apex, summit]
applied to the cells or buds at the distal growing point. Usually applied to the dominance of the bud at the growing tip of a branch which prevents other buds on the branch from growing.
APICAL (TERMINAL) bud
a [L. apex, summit]
The topmost bud on a stem. See BUD.
APICAL-WEDGE GRAFTING
v [L. apex, summit]
Also known as cleft grafting, this method is used to propagate a number of shrubs. The stem of the rootstock is cut horizontally across, then the stem is cut vertically down the centre. A scion is then selected with a similar diameter to the stock. A "V" shaped wedge is then formed at the scion base. The scion is then pushed into the vertical cut on the rootstock and bound with tape. The tape may be removed when the two pieces have successfully grafted, and the newly formed plant potted or planted out. See GRAFTING.
APICULATE
a [Dim of L. apex, summit]
The leaf tip ends abruptly in a small pointed tip. Image /leafshapes/54?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
APLEROTIC
a [Gk. a, not; pleroun, to fill]
Not entirely filling a space. Usually applied to oospores not filling the oogonium. cf. PLEROTIC
APOCARPOUS
a [Gk. apo, away; karpus, fruit]
With carpels free from each other or only partially joined.
APOMIXIS
v [Gk. apo, away; mixis, a mixing]
Reproduction by seed formed without sexual fusion. (adj. apomictic) Akin to parthenogenesis, but including development from cells other than ovules.
APOTHECIUM
n [Gk. apotheke, store]
An open cup-like ascocarp, with or without a stalk, containing sacs in which sexual spores are produced, as in lichens and the fungi Ascomycetes.
APPRESSORIUM
n [L. ad, to; pressare, to press]
An A=adhesive disk, sucker, haustorium or germ tube that enables attachment or penetration of a host by a fungus.
APTEROUS
a [Gk. a, without; pteron, wing]
Wingless. Having no wing-like extentions on stems or petioles. alt EXALATE
AQUATIC PLANT
n [L. aqua, water]
Any plant that grows in water it may be free-floating, totally submerged, or rooted on the pond bottom with leaves and flowers above the water surface.
ARIL
n [F. arille, Sp. arillo, a small hoop]
A fleshy or sometimes hairy outgrowth from the hilum or funicle of a seed, . It may be fleshy, spongy or tufts of hairs.
ARISTATE
a [L. arista, awn]
(of leaves) The leaf has a well developed bristle or stiff awns. Image /leafshapes/55?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ARTEFACT
n [L.ars, art; factus, made]
ARTIFACT q.v. An object caused by the method of preparation and not part of the specimen. The remains of a man or animal made object.
ARTHROPOD
n [Gk. arthron, joint; pous, foot]
Any one of thousands of invertebrate animals having an exoskeleton (external skeleton) such as crustaceans, lobsters, crabs, spiders, mites, insects, centipedes, and millipedes, They are characterised by a segmented body with jointed appendages. They are members of the Phylum Arthropoda, which makes up most of the species in the world.
ARTHROSPORE
n [Gk. arthron, joint; sporos seeed]
ARTHROCONIDIUM q.v. Asexual spores formed by segmentation of the hyphae.
ARTIFACT
n [L.ars, art; factus, made]
ARTEFACT q.v. An object caused by the method of preparation and not part of the specimen. The remains of a man or animal made object.
ASCOCARP
n [Gk. ascos, bag; karpos, fruit]
SPOROCARP, SPORANGIOCARP q.v. The sexual fruiting body of a fungus in the Phylum Ascomycete(Ascomycota). The Ascocarp contains the asci and ascospores.
ASCOMYCETE
n [Gk. askos, bag; mykes, fungus]
ASCOMYCOTA q.v. Originally a class now a Phylum of fungi that produces sexual spores(scospores) in an asci.
ASCOMYCOTA
n [Gk. askos, bag; mykes, fungus]
ASCOMYCETE q.v. Originally a class now a Phylum of fungi that produces sexual spores(scospores) in an asci.
ASCOSPORE
n [Gk. askos, bag;sporos, seed]
A sexually produced fungal spore formed within an ascus of a fungi in the Phylum ascomycetes. Ascospores have a haploid number of chromosomes and are formed by meiosis.
ASCUS
n [Gk. askos, bag]
The sack-like cells, in an ascocarp, that produces ascospores .
ASEPALUS
a [L. a, without; F. sepale, from; L, separare, separate]
Without sepals
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
v [Gk. a, without; L. sexus, sex]
A form of reproduction not involving fertilization and in propagation often involving mechanical methods (see Vegetative propagation).
ASYMETRICAL
a [Gk. asymmetros, disproportionate]
(of leaves) The leaves are uneven at the base, like the Begonia leaf. Image /leafshapes/35?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
ATTENUATE
a [L. attendare, to thin]
(of leaves) Leaves gradually tapering to a point. Image /leafshapes/72?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
AURICLE
n [L. auricula, small ear]
Small ear-like projections at the base of a leaf or leaf blade or bract, especially in grasses. (adj. auriculate) Image /leafshapes/73?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
AUTOECIOUS
a [Gk. Auto, self; oikos, house]
(Of plants, esp mosses) having male and female reproductive organs on the same plant. Of an organism that can complete its life cycle in one host. Alt[AUTECIC, AUTECIOUS,AUTOXENOUS,AMETOECIOUS]
AUTOTOXICITY
a [Gk. Auto, self; toxin, poison]
Of a substance produced by an organism that also kills it.
AUXINS
n [Gk. auxein, to increase]
Naturally occurring or artificially synthesized plant growth substances controlling shoot growth, root formation, and other physiological processes in plants such as phototropism.
AVIRULENT
a [GK a,not; L. virus, poison]
Of a pathogen that does not affect a host.
AWN
n [Icel. ogen, chaff]
A stiff, bristle-like extension to an organ, usually at the tip or back of the lemma or glume of a grass inflorescence.
AXENIC
a [Gk. axenos, inhospitable]
Of a culture medium that only has one species. Alt.[STERILE].
AXIL
n [L. axilla, armpit]
The upper angle between a leaf and a stem or between a main stem and a lateral branch, or between a stem and a bract. (See also BUD: AXILLARY BUD.)
AXILE PLACENTATION
v [L. axilla, armpit; placenta, flat cake]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne on placentas on the central axis of an ovary that has two or more locules
AXILLARY
a [L. axilla, armpit]
Pertaining to the organs in the axil, eg the buds, flowers or inflorescence.
AXILLARY BUD
n [L. axilla, armpit]
A bud that occurs in an axil. See BUD.
AXIS
n [L. axis, axle]
The main or central stem of a herbaceous plant or of an inflorescence. Fundementally the central line of a structure.
B
BACCATE
a [L. bacca, berry]
Berry-like.
BACK-BULB
n [O.E. baec, back; Gk. bolbos,bulbous root]]
Usually of orchids a dormant, old pseudobulb without leaves.
BACTERIA
a [Gk. Bakterion, small rod; L. caedere, to kill]
Bacteria are microscopic organisms with single cells that do not have a nucleus, but do have DNA and multiply mainly by fission. They do have sexual processes that usually produce spores. They are the most abundant life forms on the earth and are found in and around everything. In the gut of animals they break down food to release nutrients. Some cause major diseases, but the majority are benign. alt.[SCHIZOMYCETES]
BACTERICIDE
a [Gk. Bakterion, small rod; L. caedere, to kill]
Of a substance that kills bacteria. Alt.[BACTERIOCIDAL]
BACTERIOCIN
a [Gk. bakterion, small rod; L. cide, to kill]
An antibacterial substance, usually a protein, produced by certain bacteria that is harmful to another bacteria strain in the same family.
BALLED
v [O.N. ballr, ball]
1) Of trees and shrubs that have been lifted and had their root ball wrapped in hessian or other material to keep it intact during transplanting. 2) A flower that does not open properly and rots when still in bud.
BALLISTOSPORES
n [Gk. ballein, to throw; spores seed]
Asexual spores that are suddenly ejected. Alt. BALLOSPORES
BAR
n [Gk. baros, pressure]
A unit of pressure equal to 100000pascals
BARE-ROOT
a [O.E. baer, naked; O.N. rot, food plants]
Of plants sold with their roots bare of soil.
BARK-RINGING
v [Dan. barh, bark]
The removal of a thin(1/4 inch max) ring of bark from the trunk or branches of certain fruit trees, to reduce vigorous growth and to encourage fruit cropping. Also known as "girdling".
BASAL
a [L. basis, base]
pertaining to the base or point of attachment. The foundations.
BASAL PLACENTATION
v [L. basis, base; placenta, flat cake]
Having the placenta at the base of the ovary
BASAL PLATE
n [L. basis, base]
The compressed stem part of a bulb.
BASAL STEM CUTTING
n [L. basis, base]
A cutting taken from the base of a (usually herbaceous) plant as it begins to produce growth in spring. See also: Cutting.
BASE DRESSING
v [L. bassus, short]
Is an application of fertilizer or humus (manure, compost, etc.) applied to or dug into the soil prior to sowing or planting.
BASIDIUM
n [Gk. basis, base; idion, dim]
I Basidiomycetes, a cell on the fruiting body that produces asexual spores by meiosis. plu.BASIDIA
BASIDOSPORE
n [Gk. basis, base; sporos, seed]
A haploid spore produced on a basidium after meiosis.
BASIFIXED
a [L. basis, base]
Having anthers attached at the base to the filament, and therefore lacking independent movement. cf dorsifixed
BASIFUGE
n [L. basis, base; fugere, to flee]
A plant unable to tolerate basic solil. Alt. CALCIFUGE, a. OXYPHILOUS. See CALCICOLE, SILICOLE.
BASIPETAL
a [L. basis, base; petere, to seek]
Of organs, usually flowers developing from the apex to the base. With the oldest at the apex and the youngest at the base. cf ARCOPETAL.
BASTARD TRENCHING
v [L. bastum, packsaddle]
With this method of digging you do the same as with double digging but you turn the soil at the bottom of the trench over using a fork to make it easier this has the effect of improving the subsoil and the overall drainage. .See Double digging.
BED SYSTEM
a [O.E. bedd, bed]
A method of planting vegetable crops in closely spaced rows, often in blocks or narrow beds for easy access.
BEDDING PLANTS
n [O.E. bedd, bed]
Annuals and biennials (or plants grown as such) raised almost to maturity and then planted out, "bedded out", often in large blocks for temporary display.
BERRY
n [O.E. berie, berry]
A fleshy fruit without a stony layer, usually containing many seeds.
BETACYANINS
n [L. beta, beet; Gk. kyanos, dark blue ]
A group of red pigments found mainly in plants of the plant order Chenopodiales. They are nitrogen-containing compounds responsible for the red colour of beetroot, some flowers and some cacti. See[BETALAINS, BETAXANTHINS] Both betacyanins and betaxanthins are classed as BETALAINS.
BETALAINS
n [L. beta, beet;]
Red and yellow alkaloid pigments present in members of the Caryophyllales plants. It is an antioxidant first discovered in beetroot. See BETACYANINS, BETAXANTHINS
BETAXANTHINS
n [Gk. beta, second; xanthos, yellow]
A group of yellow pigments chemically similar to betacyanins and are restricted to the same plant order Chenopodiales. Both betacyanins and betaxanthins are classed as betalains . See [BETACYANINS, BETALAINS] Both betacyanins and betaxanthins are classed as BETALAINS.
BI-
a [L. bis, twice]
A prefix meaning two or twice.
BICARPELLATE
a [L. bis, twice; Gk. karpos, fruit]
An ovary with two carpels.
BIENNIAL
n [L. bis, twice; annus, year]
A plant that flowers and dies in the second growing season after germination.
BIFID
a [L. bis, twice; findere, to split]
Forked having a deep fissure near to the middle line.
BIFLAGELLATE
a [L. bis, twice; flagellum, whip]
Having two flagella.
BIGUTTULATE
a [L. bis, twice; gutta, drop]
Of cells or spores, containing two (usually) oil guttules(droplets).
BILABIATE
a L. bis, twice; labium, lip]
A corolla with a clearly distinguished labrum and labium. Two-lipped.
BINUCLEATE
a [L. Bis, twice; nucleus, kernel]
Of Cells, containing two nuclei.
BIOCONTROL
n [Gk. bios, life; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll]
The use of one or more type of living organism(BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT/S) to control another living organism or habitat. Alt.[BIOLOGICAL CONTROL]
BIOCONTROL AGENT
n [Gk. bios, life; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll; agere, do]
An organism, insect, animal or plant used to control something that has become a unwanted pest. Alt.[BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT]
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
n [Gk. bios, life; logos, discourse; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll]
The use of one or more type of living organism(BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT/S) to control another living organism or habitat. Alt.[BIOCONTROL]
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT
n [Gk. bios, life; logos, discourse; L. contra, against; rotulus, a roll; agere, do]
An organism, insect, animal or plant used to control something that has become a unwanted pest. Alt.[BIOCONTROL AGENT]
BIOTIC AGENT
n [Gk. bios, life; L. agere, do]
One life form used to control another life form or habitat. Most biotic agents are PATHOGENS.
BIPINNATE
a [L. bis, twice; pinna, feather]
A pinnate leaf with separate small stalks that have leaflets Image /leafshapes/44?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
BIPOLAR
a [L. bis, twice; polus, pole]
Having located at two ends of an object or cell. Sexual compatibility in some fungi spores where two types of spores are produced. Located at both north and south poles of the earth. Alt.[DIPOLAR]
BISERIAL, BISERIATE
a [L. bis, twice; series, rows]
In two rows.
BISEXUAL
a [L. bis, twice; sexus, sex]
Flowers having both male and female reproductive organs in a single flower. see hermaphrodite, amphisporangiate, ambisporangiate, unisexual
BLADE
n [A.S. blaed, leaf]
The flattened part of a leaf the lamina
BLANCH
v [O.F. blanc, white]
To exclude light from developing leaves or stems in order to keep the plant tissue white, soft and palatable.
BLASTOCONIDIUM
n [Gk. blastos,bud; konis, dust; idium, dim]
A conidium produced by budding as seen in yeasts such as Candida and Cryptococcus spp. Alt.[BLASTOSPORE]
BLASTOSPORE
n [Gk. blastos, bud; sporos, seed]
A conidium produced by budding as seen in yeasts such as Candida and Cryptococcus spp. Alt.[BLASTOCONIDIUM]
BLEED
v [O.E. bledan, (rel. to blood)]
To lose sap through a cut or wound on a plant.
BLIGHT
n [A.S. blaecan, to grow pale]
A sudden, severe and extensive discolouration, wilting and rotting of plant parts caused by a fungus. e.g. Potato Blight.
BLIND
a [O.E. of Gmc origin]
A plant that fails to produce flowers, or a stem or bulb in which the growing point has been damaged.
BLOOM
n [O.N. blom, blossom]
1) A flower or blossom. 2) A waxy, white or bluish-white coating on a stem, leaf, or fruit.
BLOTCH
n [ON. bletter, blot]
A symptom of a fungal or bacterial disease charactised by irregular shaped spots on plants.
BLOWN
a [O.E. blowan, of Gmc origin, rel. to bloom and blssom]
Of flowers or hearted vegetables that are past full maturity and are fading.
BOG
n [Cel. bog, soft]
1}) A community on very wet acid peaty soil. 2) An area of very soft wet muddy ground. See Fen.
BOG PLANT
n [Ir. bog, soft]
A plant whose natural habitat is soil that is permanently damp, or one that thrives in such conditions.
BOLE
n [L. bolus, clod]
1) The trunk of a tree from ground level to the first major branch. 2) A fine reddish clay containing iron oxide.
BOLT
v [M.E. bolt, to run away]
To produce flowers and seed prematurely.
BOSTRYX
n [Gk. bostrychos, curl]
A cymose inflorescence with successive branches on one side usually causing it to curled like a spring. It is also called a helicoid cyme. Image /flowerinfos/38?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
BOTRTOSE
a [Gk. botrys, bunch of grapes]
Racemose arrangement. Like a bunch of grapes.
BRACT
n [L. bractea, thin metal plate]
A modified, often protective, leaf at the base of a flower or flower cluster. Bracts may or may not resemble normal leaves, or be small and scale-like, or large and brightly coloured. Usually used in connection with flowers, it is not actually a part of the flower. Often, it is strikingly colored leaves which looks like part of the inflorescence, like in the Pointsetta flowers.
BRACTEOLE
n [L. btacteola, thin metal leaf]
A small leaf-like organ, occurring along the length of a flower stalk, between a true subtending bract and the calyx
BRANCH
n [L. branca. paw]
A shoot arising from the main stem or trunk of a woody plant.
BRANCH WHORL
a [l.l. branca, paw; A.S. hweorfan, to turn]
A circular arrangement of leaves, flowers, etc., formed on the stem at the same height.
BRASSICA
n [L. cabbage]
A member of the cabbage family.
BREAK
n [O.E. brecan, of Gmc origin]
A shoot growing from an axillary bud.
BREEDING LINE
a [O.E. berdan, brood; L. linea, line]
A plant or animal strain, having some desirable characteristics, use in the propagation of a species or hybrid.
BROADCASTING
v [O.E. brad; O.N. kasta, to throw]
Scattering seed or fertilizer evenly over the ground, rather than in furrows or drills.
BROADLEAVED
a [O.E. brad; leaf, leaf]
Of trees or shrubs that bear broad, flat leaves rather than needle-like foliage.
BROMELIAD
n [L. bromelia after Swedish botanist Olaf Bromel]
A member of the family Bromeliaceae.
BUD
n [M.E. budde, bud]
A rudimentary or condensed shoot containing an embryonic leaf, leaf cluster, or flower. Adventitious bud: one produced abnormally, for example from the stem instead of from a leaf axil. Apical (or terminal) bud: the topmost bud on a stem. Axillary bud: one that occurs in an axil. Crown bud: a flower bud at the shoot tip, surrounded by other, usually smaller, flower buds. Fruit bud: one from which leaves and flowers (followed by fruits) develop. Growth bud: one from which only leaves or a shoot develop.
BUD GRAFTING
v [O.F. graffe, graft]
A form of grafting where a leaf with a bud is cut from one plant and place in contact with the cambium layer of another plant's rootstock to produce a plant with certain growth characteristics. See GRAFTING.
BUD UNION
n [M.E. budde, bud]
The point at which the scion bud unites with the rootstock. See GRAFTING.
BUDDING
v [M.E. budde, bud]
Bud-grafting, a form of grafting. See GRAFTING.
BUDDING TAPE
n [M.E. budde, bud]
Grafting tape used to protect a graft union during healing. It is usually impervious to water but let air through. This combination is perfect for grafting which requires a barrier to keep moisture in while allowing oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through.
BUDWOOD
n [M.E. budde, bud; A.S. wudu, wood]
A shoot cut from a tree to provide a scion for bud-grafting.
BUG
n [M.E. bugge , something frightening]
An insect or similar organism that is usually a nuisance or pest. A disease-causing microorganism. A defect or difficulty in a system or design. A defect in the code of a computer program. An enthusiasm or obsession. An electronic listening device, such as a hidden microphone or wiretap, used in surveillance.
BULB
n [L. bulbus, globular root]
A modified stem acting as a storage organ and consisting mainly of fleshy. more or less separate or tightly packed scale leaves (a modified bud) on a much reduced stem (basal plate).
BULB FIBRE
n [L. bulbus, globular root; fibra, band]
A mixture of peat. oystershell. and charcoal. in which bulbs are row in containers. Often without drainase holes.
BULBIL
n [L. bulbus, globular root]
A small bulb or bulb-like organ often produced on above-ground organs, often borne in a leaf axil. occasionally on a stem or in a flowerhead. See BULBLET.
BULBLET
n [L. BULBUS, GLOBULAR ROOT]
A small developing bulb produced from the basal plate of a mature bulb outside the tunic. See BULBIL, OFFSET.
BUSH
n [M.Du. busse, bush]
1) A small shrub. 2) An open centre fruit tree with a trunk of 36inches(90cm) or less.
BUSH FRUIT
n [M.Du. busse bush; L. frug, fruit]
Bush fruit: used of soft fruit bushes such as blackcurrants and gooseberries.
BUTYRACEOUS
a [L. butryum, butter]
Usually of a microorganism that produces a buttery consistency. Alt.[BUTYROUS]
BUTYROUS
a [L. butryum, butter]
Usually of a microorganism that produces a buttery consistency. Alt.[BUTYRACEOUS]
C
CACTUS
n [Gk. kaktos, cardoon]
A member of the, family Cactaceae, characterized by fleshy, water-storing tissue in the stems and areoles (specialized groups of cells) from which spines, flowers, and shoots develop.
CADUCOUS
a [L. caducus,falling]
Of leaves, calyx, stipules etc. falling off prematurely or easily. Alt.FUGACIOUS See DECIDUOUS
CALCICOLE
n [L. calx, lime, colere, to dwell]
Lime-loving a plant that thrives in alkaline soil. Alt. CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE, A. CALCOLOUS. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE.
CALCIFEROUS
a [L> calx, lime;ferre, to carry]
containing or producing lime salts. alt[CALCIGEROUS]
CALCIFUGE
n [L. calx, lime; fugere, to flee]
Lime-hating a plant that will not grow in alkaline soil. Alt. BASIFUGE, CALCIPHOBE, OXYPHITE, OXYTOPHYTE. See CALCICOLE, SILICOLE.
CALCIGEROUS
a [L. calx, lime; ger, to bear]
containing or producing lime salts. alt[CALCIFEROUS]
CALCIPETE
n [L. calyx, lime; petere, to go towards]
A plant that tend to thrive in alkaline soil. Alt. CALCIOCOLE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE. a. CALCOLOUS.
CALCIPHILE
n [L. calyx, lime; Gk. philein, to love]
A plant that only trives on calcareous soils. Alt. CALCIPHYTE, CALCICOLE See. CALCIPETE, GYPSOPHYTE, CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE. a. CALCOLOUS.
CALCIPHOBE
n [L. calyx, lime; Gk. phobos, fear]
Lime-hating a plant that will not grow in alkaline soil. Alt. BASIFUGE, OXYPHITE, OXYTOPHYTE. See CALCICOLE, SILICOLE.
CALCIPHYTE
n [L. calyx, lime; Gk. phyton, plant]
Lime-loving a plant that thrives in alkaline soil. Alt. CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE. a. CALCOLOUS.
CALLUS
n [L. callum, hard skin]
Protective tissue formed by plants over a wounded surface, particularly in woody plants but also at the base of cuttings.
CALYCLE
n [L. calyculus, little calyx]
A small cup shape leaf below the calyx. Alt CALYCULUS
CALYCULUS
n [L. calyculus, little calyx]
A group of leaf-like appendages below the calyx. Alt. CALYCLE
CALYX
n [Gk. kalyx, calyx]
(pl. calyces). The collective name for the sepals, the outer whorl of usually green, segments that enclose the flower in bud. Image /flowerinfos/13?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAMBIUM
n [L. cambium, change]
A layer of cells that occurs within the stem and roots which divides to form secondary permanent tissues. See also MERISTEM.
CAMPANULATE
a [L.L. campana, bell]
Bell-shaped
CAMPYLOTROPOUS
a [Gk.kampylos, curved; trope, turning]
(of ovules) Bent over through 90 degrees so that the. stalk (funicle) appears to be attached to the side of the ovule.
CANKER
n [L. CANCER, CANCER]
A dead, usually soft and sunken, area of stem, root or fruit. A sharply defined necrosis.
CANOPY
n [Gk. konopein, curtained bed]
The top layers of foliage growth of a tree or forest.
CAPILLARY MATTING
n [L. capillus, hair]
Matting made of synthetic fibre that acts like fine tubes and is used to draw water upwards by capillary action to irrigate pot plants on capillary beds or benches.
CAPITATE
n [L. caput, head]
Having a well formed head like a Sunflower.
CAPITULUM
n [L. capitulum, small head]
An inflorescence with many sessile flowers on a common flat or slightly curved main axis, as with the sunflower. Image /flowerinfos/6?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAPPING
v [O.E. caeppe, hood]
A crust that forms on the surface of soil damaged by compaction, heavy rain, or watering. See PAN.
CAPSULE
n [L. capsula, little box]
A fruit with more than one carpel, which opens when ripe.
CARBOHYDRATES
n [L. carbo, coal; Gk. hydor, watyer]
Molecules of sugars formed from carbon, oxygen and hydrogen such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, starches, and cellulose.
CARDINAL
a [L. cardo, hinge]
pertaining to that which something depends. For example growth temperatures at which an organism can grow.
CARLAVIRUS
n [ON. karl, man; L. virus, poisonus liquid]
A group of plant viruses, often known as "Carnation latent virus group" with filamentous DNA molecules. Although some Carla viruses cause mild symptoms and a few cause serious problems most of these viruses only infects a few hosts and are often symptomless and are often transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner, which means that the virus is not viable in the transmitter(aphids perhaps) for a long time.
CARNIVOROUS PLANT
n [L. carno, flesh; vorare, to devour]
A plant that is capable of catching and digesting small animals such as insects.
CARPEL
n [Gk. karpos, fruit]
The female part of the flower that contains the ovules several carpels in a flower are collectively known as the pistil.
CARPET BEDDING
n [L. carpere, pull to pieces]
The use of groups of closely planted, low-growing, colourful bedding plants in various designs.
CARUNCLE
n [L. caruncula, small piece of flesh]
(ADJ. CARUNCULATE) A fleshy, sometimes colored, out-growth near the hilum of some seeds.
CARYOPSIS
n [Gk. karyon, nut; opsis, appearance]
A dry fruit (achene) typical of grasses. Alt. GRAIN
CASING
n [OFr. casse, chest]
A covering of soil or moss over mushroom spawned compost.
CATENATE
a [L. catenatus, chained]
Developing in a chain-like manner. alt[CATENULATE]
CATENULATE
a [L. catenatus, chained]
Forming a chain-like series. alt[CATENATE]
CATERPILLAR
n [L. cattus, cat; pilosus, hairy]
The larvae of an insect, but this term is usually reserved for the larvae of moths and butterflies.
CATKIN
n [A.S. catkins, little cat]
A racemose (see Raceme) flower spike, or a spike-like inflorescence, with conspicuous bracts and small, often unisexual flowers lacking petals usually hanging downwards. Image /flowerinfos/18?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAUDA
n [L. cauda, tail]
A tail or tail-like appendage at the posterior end of a body or organ. Often applied to the posterior end of an aphid.
CAUDATE
a [L. cauda, tail]
(of leaves) The leaves seems to have a tail. Image /leafshapes/56?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CAUDICLE
n [dim of L. cauda, tail]
The stalk of the pollinium in an orchid flower
CAULICOLOUS
a [L.caulis, stalk;colere, to inhabit]
Growing on the stem of a plant. Usually applicable to fungi.
CAUSAL AGENT
n [L. causa, motive; agere, to do]
An organism that causes a specific disease.
CELLULOLYTIC
a [L. cellula, small cell;Gk. lyen, to break down]
Having the ability to break down cellulose.
CENTRAL LEADER
n [L. centrum, center; A.S. leadan, to lead]
The central, usually upright stem of a tree.
CEOLOMYCETES
n [Gk. koilos, hollow; mycete, fungus]
Ceolomycetes are fungi that mainly exists as plant pathogens, saprobes or parasites. They are usually, but not exclusively, limited to hot humid environments. They produce a mass of conidiogenus cells which produce conidiomata which in turn produce conidia.
CERTIFIED STOCK
n [L. certus, certain; O.E. stoc, trunk]
Plants certified by the Goverment agency as free from certain pests and diseases.
CHASMOTHECIA
n [Gk. chasma, opening; theke, case]
New name for cleistothecium
CHILLING REQUIREMENT
v [O.E. cele, cold; L. requirere, seek]
The requirement of plants for a specific period of dormancy below a particular temperature in order for them to initiate flowering.
CHINESE LAYERING
v [O.F. lai]
An alternative name for air layering see Layering.
CHIP-BUDDING
v [ M.E. forcippian, to cut off; budde, bud]
Used to propagte hardwood cuttings, a non flowering bud is cut from the required plant and grafted onto a rootstock of similar size. See GRAFTING.
CHLAMYDOSPORE
n [Gk. chlamys, cloak; sporos, seed]
A thick walled conidia or resting spore, usually of fungi.
CHLORITIC
a [Gk. chloros, pallid]
Pertaining to plants affected by chlorosis.
CHLOROPHYLL
n [Gk. chloros, grass, green; phyllon, leaf]
The green plant pigment that is mainly responsible for light absorption and hence photosynthesis in plants.
CHLOROSIS
n [Gk. chloros, pallid]
An abnormal condition caused by genetic factors or the lack of light, magnesium or iron deficiency in the nutrients of plants, which leads to a yellowing of the normal green leaves. It is also a form of anaemia in humans.
CHROMOSOME
n [Gk. chroma, colour; soms, body]
A bead-like string structure of a coiled DNA molecule containing many genes and other elements, which is only visible when it becomes more tightly coiled during cell division.
CHRYSALIS
n [Gk. chrysallis, golden thing]
The case of the pupa of an insect, usually applied to butterfly pupa, inside of which the insect completes its metamorphosis.
CILIATE
a [L. cilium, eyelid]
(of leaves) having a margin or fringe of small hairlike projections. Image /leafshapes/22?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CINCINNUS
a [L. cincinnus, curl]
A monochasial, cymose inflorescence with branches alternating from one side of the vertical axis to the other normally curved to one side. Also called a scorpiod cyme as it looks like a scorpion. Image /flowerinfos/27?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CIRCUMSCISSILE
a [L. circum, around;scindere, to cut]
Opening all round by a transverse split.
CIRROSE
a [L. cirrus, curl]
(of leaves) The leaves have tendril-like tips or tips that end with a curl. This is the same as cirrhose leaves. alt. CIRROUS Image /leafshapes/57?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CLADDODE
n [Gk. klados, sprout]
A flattened stem which has assumed the form and function of a leaf.
CLAMP
v [O.E. clamm, clam]
A method for storing root crops outdoors. The crops are heaped up and protected against frost by layers of straw and soil a "chimney" hole filled with straw provides ventilation.
CLAMP CONNECTION
n [ME. clam, clam; L. con, together, nectere, bind]
In many basidiomycete fungi a characteristic outgrowth seen in the dividing dikaryotic hyphae, which aids the movement the divided nuclei each of the new cells. This only happens at the tips of the hyphae where they are dividing.
CLAVATE
a [L. clava, club]
Club shaped, thickened at one end.
CLAW
n [A.S. clawu, claw]
The narrow basal part of some petals and sepals.
CLAW
n [A.S. clawu, claw]
In orchids the lip is attached near the apex of the ovary by a slender connecting structure called a "claw."
CLEFT
a [M.E. clift, cleft]
(of leaves) The leaf tips seems to be split in two Image /leafshapes/58?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CLEISTOCARP
n [Gk. kleistos, closed; karpos, case]
(CLEISTOTHECIUM, q.v.) A closed ascocarp where the spores are produced internally and are released by the breakdown of the enclosure.
CLEISTOGAMIC
a [Gk. kleistos, closed; gamos, marriage]
(CLEISTOGAMOUS q.v.) (of flowers) Self-pollinating, without the flower ever opening.
CLEISTOTHECIUM
n [Gk. kleistos, closed; theke, case]
A closed ascocarp where the spores are produced internally and are released by the breakdown of the enclosure. alt CLEISTOCARP
CLIMBER
n [O.E. climban, climb]
A plant that climbs using other plants or objects as support: selfclinging climbers by means of supporting, adventitious, aerial roots or adhesive tendril tips tendril climbers by coiling their leaf stalks, leaf 'tendrils, or modified terminal shoots twining climbers by coiling their stems. Scandent, scrambling, and trailing climbers produce long, usually flexuous, stems that grow over or through plants or other supports they attach themselves only loosely, if at all, to the support. Image /plants/478?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CLOCHE
n [L. clocca, bell]
A small, usually portable, structure made of clear plastic or glass, normally in a metal framework used to protect early crops on open ground and to warm the soil before planting. Originally it was a bell shaped glass jar used to protect certain plants. (See also Floating cloche.)
CLONE
v [Gk, klon, twig]
1) A group of genetically identical plants produced by vegetative propagation or asexual reproduction. 2) An individual plant in such a group.
COALESCE
v [L. cum, with; alscere, to grow]
To come together and grow as one.
COB
n [M.E. cob, a strong man or leader]
An inflorescence with a thickened main axis and many small sessile flowers, as is the case with corn.
COCOON
n [F. cocon, cocoon]
The protective covering of a silky nature around the pupae and or eggs of insects.
COENOCYTIC
n [Gk. koinos, common; kytos, hollow]
Plant tissue made up of cells without cell walls which occurs in slime molds, some fungi and algae.
COENZYME
n [L. cum, with; Gk. en, in;zyme, leaven]
A non protien substance which is loosely bound to the protien part of an enzyme and is necessary for the function of the enzyme. cf. [ENZYME]
COLD FRAME
n [O.E. cald, cold; framian, be useful]
A glazed, box-like, unheated structure, made from brick, wood, or glass, with a hinged or removable glass or clear plastic light, used to protect plants from excessive cold.
COLLAR
n [L. colare, band for the neck]
1) The part of a plant where the roots meet the stem also known as the "neck". 2) The part of a tree where a main branch meets the trunk (or a side branch meets a main branch).
COLLARETE
n [ME. coler, collar]
A wavy line in the iris of the eye that divides the central pupillary zone from the peripheral ciliary zone and which can be seen on the surface of the iris.
COLLENCHYMA
n [Gk. kolla, glue; enchyma, infusion]
Supporting tissue for actively growing plant structures, which consists of living cells that have been stretched with thickened cell walls. It is commonly found in the cortex of herbaceaous stems.
COLONY
n [L.. colonia, farm]
Any collection of organisms living together. Often applied to bees, wasps and microorganisms on culture medium.
COLPATE
a [Gk. kolpos,fold]
Pollen having one or more colpi (oblong-elliptic apertures in the pollenwall).
COLUMELLA
n [L. columella, small column]
The central column of sterile cells in the center of of the capsules of mosses. The central core in a root cap. The central pillar in some corals. The axis of the cochlea in the ear. The cartlilage connecting the drum with the inner ear of reptiles.
COLUMN
n [L. columna, pillar]
The combined style and stigma of a flower, typically of orchids.
COMPANION PLANTING
v [L. cum together; panis, bread]
Positioning plants together that are reputed to have a beneficial effect on neighbouring plants by discouraging pests and diseases or improving growth.
COMPOSITAE
n [L. com, together; poinere, to place]
Having flowers with a capitulum made up of florets. The daisy family including dandilion, thistles etc.
COMPOST
n [L. com, together; ponere, to place]
1) A potting medium comprising a mixture of loam, sand, peat, leaf mould, or other ingredients. 2) An organic material, rich in humus, formed by decomposed plant remains, and other organic matter, used as a soil improver or mulch.
COMPOUND
a [L. com, together; ponere, to place]
Consisting of several parts, eg a leaf with several leaflets or an inflorescence with more than one group of flowers.(See Simple.)
CONE
n [Gk. konos, cone]
The densely clustered bracts and flowers of conifers and some flowering plants, often developing into a woody, seed-bearing structure as in the familiar pine cone.
CONIDIA
n [Gk. konis, dust; idion, dim]
Plural of CONIDIUM
CONIDIOMA [-ATA]
n [Gk. koilos, hollow; myKES, fungus]
A fruiting structure, that produce conidia and conidiophores, created from a mass of specialised cells (conidiogenous).
CONIDIOPHORE
n [Gk. konis, dust; idion, small; pherein, to bear]
A modified hypha in fungi which bears conidia.
CONIDIOSPORE
n [Gk. konis, dust; idium, dim; sporos, seed]
A asexual spore produced by constriction of a short hypha arising from the conidiophore. They are haploid and un-enclosed cells that can develop into a new organism if conditions are right. q.v.[CONIDIUM]
CONIDIUM
n [Gk. konis, dust; idion, dim]
A asexual spore produced by constriction of a short hypha arising from the conidiophore. They are haploid and un-enclosed cells that can develop into a new organism if conditions are right. q.v.[CONIDIOSPORE]
CONIFER
n [L. conus, cone; ferre, to bear]
Gymnosperms, usually evergreen trees and shrubs that are distinguished from flowering plants (Angiosperms) by the naked ovules that are not enclosed in an ovary but are often borne in cones.
CONJUGATE
v [L. conjugare, to join together]
To unite, as in zygospheres pairs forming zygospore.
CONNATE
a [L. cum, together; gnatus, born]
Joined or attached to; applied to similar organs fused during development, eg stamens fused into a tube. cf ADNATE
CONNECTIVE
n [L. connectere, to bind together]
(of stamens) The tissue connecting the pollen sacs of an anther.
CONTACT ACTION
v [L. contactus, touch; action, action]
The action of a pesticide or weedkiller that kills or damages the pest or weed by direct contact.
CONTORTED
a [L. con, together, torquere, twist]
Sepals and petals twisted in the bud so that they overlap on one side only, Spirally twisted.
CONVOLUTE
a [L. cum together; volvere, to wind]
Rolled together.
COPPICING
v [L. colpus, blow]
The annual pruning back of trees or shrubs close to ground level to produce vigorous, usually decorative, shoots. cf COPSE
COPSE
n [L. colpus, a blow ]
A shortened form of coppice. A small group of trees.
CORDATE
a [L. cord, heart]
(of leaves) Heart-shaped . Image /leafshapes/2?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CORDON
n [L. chorda, gut, string]
A trained plant (usually a fruit tree) generally restricted to one main stem by rigorous pruning. A single cordon has one main stem, a double, or "U", cordon has two, and a multiple cordon, three or more stems.
CORIACEOUS
a [L. corium, leather]
Leathery.
CORM
n [Gk. kormos, trunk]
A bulb-like, underground, swollen stem or stem base, often surrounded by a papery tunic. like the Gladiola. A corm is replaced annually by a new corm that develops from a terminal, or lateral, bud.
CORMEL
n [Gk. kormos, trunk]
A small corm developing around a mature corm, usually outside the main corm tunic, as in Gladiolus.
CORMLET
n [Gk. kormos, trunk]
A small corm arising at the base (and usually within the old tunic) of a mature one. See OFSET.
CORNICLE
n [L. cornicumum, little horn]
An abdominal, bi-lateral wax secreting structure on aphids.
COROLLA
n [L. corolla, small crown]
The interior whorl of the perianth of a flower, comprising several free or fused petals. The petals of a flower as a whole. Image /flowerinfos/15?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
COROLLA LOBES CUSPS
n [L. corolla,small crown; lobus, lobe; cuspis, point]]
The free part of a stunted whorl of petals.
COROLLA TUBE
n [L. corolla, small crown; tubus, pipe]
The connected part of a stunted whorl of petals.
CORONA
n [L. corona, crown]
A crown-shaped, funnel-shaped, or trumpet-shaped union growth of the perianth of certain flowers, such as the Daffodil or the Cobea scandens. Also called a crown. Image /flowerinfos/34?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CORTEX
n [L. cortex, bark]
adj[cortical) The outer superficial part of an organ. The thick outer covering of plants. tissue surrounding the vascular bundles in stems and roots.
CORY-MBOSE
n [Gk. korymbos, cluster of flowers]
Arranged in a corymb Comb-like.
CORYMB
n [Gk. korymbos, cluster of flowers]
A rounded or flat-topped inflorescence of racemose type, in which the lower (outer) flower stalks (pedicels) are longer than the upper (inner) ones, so that all the flowers appear flat or slightly domed. Image /flowerinfos/4?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
COTYLEDON
n [Gk. kotyledon, cup]
A seed leaf the first leaf or leaves to emerge from the seed after germination, often markedly different from mature leaves. Flowering plants (Angiosperms) are classified into monocotyledons (one) and dicotyledons (two) depending on bow many cotyledons are contained in the mature seed. ln Gymnosperms (conifers) they are often produced in whorls.
CRENATE
a [L. crena, notch]
(of leaf margins) Round-toothed or scalloped. q.v. GIMPED. Image /leafshapes/23?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CRENULATE
a [L. crenula, notch]
(of leaves)Finely crenate. Small rounded tooth edges or small scalloped edges. Image /leafshapes/23?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CRETACEOUS
a [L. creta, chalk; ic, forming adjective]
The Cretaceous is a geologic period from about 146 TO 65 million years ago. It is the third and last period of the Mesozoic era after the Triassic and Jurassic period. The Cretaceous period, usually abbreviated K, and is also known as the chalky period. The end of the Cretaceous defines the boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, when there was a mass extinction of life forms event now known as the K-T extinction event or the K–T boundary, which is a thin band of sedimentation found all around the the world. T is the abbreviation for the Tertiary Period which is the first period in the Cenozoic era. [TRIASSIC, JURASSIC]
CROCKS
n [O.E. crocca, of Gmc origin]
Broken pieces of clay pot, used to cover the drainage holes of pots in order to provide free drainage and air circulation to the root system and to prevent the growing medium from escaping from or blocking the drainage holes.
CROP ROTATION
v [M.E. croppe, craw]
A system in which vegetable crops are grown on different sections of a plot on a three- or four year cycle to minimize the build-up of soil-borne pests and diseases in one section.
CROSS-FERTILIZATION
v [O.F. crois, cross; L. fertilis, fertile]
The fertilization of the ovules of a flower with pollen from a flower from the same or another tree of the same species or genus.
CROSS-POLLINATION
v [O.F. crois, cross; L. pollen, fine flour]
The transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower on another plant the term is often loosely applied to cross-fertilization. Cf . SELF-POLLINATION, CROSS-FERTILIZATION
CROWN
n [L. corona, crown]
1) The basal part at soil level of a herbaceous plant where roots and stems join and from where new shoots are produced. 2) The upper, branched part of a tree above the bole.
CROWN BUD
n [L. corona, crown; M.E. budde, bud]
A flower bud at the shoot tip, surrounded by other, usually smaller, flower buds. See BUD.
CROWN BUD
n [L. corona, wreath]
A flower bud at the shoot tip, surrounded by other, usually smaller, flower buds. See BUD.
CROWN SHAFT
n [L. corona; O.E. sceaft, pole]
On palms, the green formation at the top of the trunk. Although it seems to be a continuation of the trunk, it is actually formed of intertwined boat-shaped bracts of palm fronds.
CULM
n [L. culmus, stalk]
The usually hollow stem of a grass or bamboo.
CULTIVAR
n [L. cultura, cultivation; varietas, variety]
A contraction of "cultivated variety" (abbreviated to cv.) a group (or one among such a group) of cultivated plants clearly distinguished by one or more characteristics and which retains these characteristics when propagated either asexually or sexually. Cf VARIETY
CULTURE
n [L. culture, cultivation; colere, to till]
The growing of microorganisms in or on a culture medium.
CULTURE MEDIUM
n [L. culture, cultivation; colere, to till; medium, midddle]
A substance in which microorganisms or tissues are grown or propagated. Usually applied to a gel-like substances which has all the nutrients and some sugars fro the growth of the tissue or organism.
CUNEATE
a [L. cuneatus, wedge shaped]
(OF LEAVES) The bases of these leaves are wedge shaped. Image /leafshapes/75?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CUPULATE
a [L.cupula, little tub]
having a cup like shape or a cupule.
CUPULE
n [L. cupula,little tub]
(adj. cupulate) A cup-shaped sheath, surrounding some fruits.
CUSPIDATE
a [L. cuspidare, to make pointed]
( of leaves) The leaf tips terminate in a point. Image /leafshapes/59?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CUTICLE
n [L. cuticula, thin skin]
An outer skin, the epidermis, especially when it is water repellent. The outer membrane of arthropods and nematodes.
CUTTING
n [unknown, probably Gmc.]
A portion of a plant (a leaf, shoot, root, or bud) that is cut off to be used for propagation. See also: BASAL STEM CUTTING, GREENWOOD CUTTING, HARDWOOD CUTTING, HEEL CUTTING, INTERNODAL CUTTING, LEAF CUTTING, LEAFBUD CUTTING, NODAL CUTTING, RIPEWOOD CUTTING, ROOT CUTTING, SENI-RIPE CUTTING, SOFTWOOD CUTTINGAND STEM CUTTING.
CYME
n [L. cyma, young sprout]
A usually flat-topped, determinate inflorescence in v central or terminal flower opens first. Image /flowerinfos/5?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=0
CYMOSE
a [L. cyma young sprout]
Arranged in a cyme cyme-like manner.
CYPSELA
n [Gk. kypsele, hollow vessel]
A single-seeded fruit derived from a unilocular( one small compartment) inferior ovary .
CYST
n [Gk. kystis, bladder]
A bladder-like structure. The enclosing membrane around a spore or cell. A nematode artifact left by the dead remains of the female which usually contains eggs.
CYSTOLITH
n [Gk. kystis, bladder; lithos, stone]
A crystal or deposit of lime, within a cell.
D
DAMPING DOWN
v [M.E. of Gmc origin; O.E. adune, downwards]
Wetting greehouse floors and staging with water to increase humidity, particularl in hot weather.
DAMPING OFF
v [M.E. of Gmc origin; O.E. a var. of of.]
The sudden death of a seedling soon after emergence.
DEAD-HEADING
v [O.E. dead; heafod; of Gmc origin]
The removal of flowers or flowerheads in order to stimulate better growth or new flowers.
DECIDUOUS
a [L.decidere, to fall down]
Of plants that at the end of the growing season drops its leaves and renew them at the beginning of next season semi-deciduous plants renew some of their leaves at the end growing season.
DECLINATE
a [L. de, away; clinare, to bend]
(of stamens) Curving downwards.
DECURRENT
a L. decurrere, to run downwards]
(of leaves) The leaves of these leaves extends down and almost wrap around the stem of the plant. Image /leafshapes/81?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DECUSSATE
a [L. decustare, to cross]
(of leaves) Arranged in opposite pairs on the stem, with each pair at 90 degrees to the preceding pair Image /leafshapes/98?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DEFOLIATION
a [L. de, away; folium, leaf]
The loss of leaves from a plant or tree.
DEGRADABLE POT
n [L. de, down; gradus, grade; O.E.pott, pot]
A pot made of degradable material such as compressed peat or paper.
DEGREE DAY
n [L. de, down;gradus, grade;OE. daeg, day]
A unit of accrued temperature above a set mean over a period of days. Often abbreviated DD.
DEHISCENCE
n [L. dehiscere, to gape]
Term used of fruits (usually capsules) and anthers to describe the process of opening at maturity to release their contents.
DEHISCENT
a [L. dehiscere, to gape]
Of a fruit, usually capsule, or an anther that splits along definite lines to release seeds or pollen.
DELIQUESCENT
a [L. delitescere, to become fluid]
Of a plant growth becoming fluid where growth divides into a number of branches. To become liquid.
DELTOID
a [Gk. delta; edios, form]
(of leaves) A triangular leaf shape with a point at the apex. Image /leafshapes/3?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DENDROID
a [Gk. dendron, tree]
Tree-like in form.
DENITRICICATION
n [L. de, away; Gk. nitron, soda;L. facere, to make]
A reduction in nitrates to nitrites and ammonia in plants or soil nitrogen fixation by bacteria.
DENTATE
a [L. dens, tooth]
Having large saw-like teeth on thew margin of leaves. Similar to being serrated. Image /leafshapes/25?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DENTICLE
n [L. denticulus, little tooth]
Small tooth like processes on which spores are produced.
DENTICULATE
a [L. denticulus, little topoth]
Having a finely toothed margin. See DENTATE, CRENATE. Image /leafshapes/26?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DERIVED
v [L. de, down; rivus, brook]
Originating from an earlier form or group.
DESICCATED
a [L. desiccareg, to make absolutely dry]
A substance or organism without any moisture.
DETERMINATE
a [L. deterninare, to limit]
Used of inflorescences where the central or terminal flower opens first so that the rest cannot extend further.
DI-
prx [Gk. dis, twice]
A prefix meaning two.
DIAPAUSE
n [Gk. diapauen, to make to cease]
A genetically controlled condition of dormancy or resting stage of an organism. cf. [QUIESCENCE]
DIBBER
n [M.E. dibble]
A tool used for make a depression in soil or potting compost into which seedlings or cuttings are inserted.
DICHASIUM
n [Gk. dichazein, to divide in two]
A form of cymose inflorescence with each branch giving rise to two other branches. cf MONOCHASIUM. Image /flowerinfos/21?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DICHOTOMOUS
a [Gk. dicha, in two; tamnien, to cut]
Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
DICOTYLEDON
n [Gk. di, two; kotyledon, cup-shaped hollow]
A flowering plant which has two cotyledons or seed leaves in the embro. It is also characterized by the (usually) veined leaves and the petals and sepals in multiples of two, four, or five. and the presence of a cambium. See MONOCOTYLEDON.
DIDYMOUS
a [Gk. didymos twin]
Growing in pairs.
DIDYNAMOUS
a [Gk. di, two; dynamis, power]
Having four stamens 2 longer and two shorter.
DIE-BACK
n [Gmc. die, dead; back, rear]
The death of tips of branches or the tips of roots as a result of damage-or diseased.
DIGITATELY ARRANGED
a [L. digitus, finger; ad, to; rangier, range]
Having several small leaves (like the fingers of a hand) starting from the end of a petiole or leaf stalk. Image /leafshapes/93?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DIKARYON
n [Gk. dis, twice; karyon, nucleus]
A pair of nucleus in a cell which divide at the same time.
DIKARYOTIC
a [Gk. dis, twice; karyon, nucleus]
pertaining to dikaryon. Of an organism having two sets of chromosomes. alt.[DIPLOID] CF. [HAPLOID, HEMIKARYOTIC, DUPLEX]
DIMORPHISM
n [Gk. dis, twice; morphe, shape]
(adj. dimorphic) Having two distinct forms.
DIOECIOUS
a [Gk. dis, twice; oikos, house]
Bearing male and female reproductive organs on separate plants. a plant having male and female flowers on separate plants. cf. MONOECIOUS
DIPLOID
a [Gk. dip;oos, double]
Of an organism having two sets of chromosomes. alt[DIKARYOTIC] cf.[HAPLOID, DUPLEX]
DIPOLAR
a [Gk.. dis, twice; L. polus, pole]
Having located at two ends of an object or cell. Sexual compatibility in some fungi spores where two types of spores are produced. Located at both north and south poles of the earth. Alt.[BIPOLAR]
DISBUDDING
v [O.Fr. dis, reversal of action; ME. budde, bud ]
The removal of surplus buds to promote the production high-quality flowers or fruits.
DISEASE
n [OF. desaise, lack of ease]
A dysfunction or abnormal structure or function in animals or plants, usually affecting the growth or function of the animal or plant.
DISEASE
n OF. desaise, lack of ease]
A dysfunction or abnormal structure or function in animals or plants, usually affecting the growth or function of the animal or plant.
DISEASE CYCLE
n [OF. desaise, lack of ease; Gk. kyklos, circle]
The chain of events involved in the development of the disease from the start to the end of the disease.
DISEASE CYCLE
n [OF. desaise, lack of ease; Gk. kyklos, circle]
The chain of events involved in the development of the disease from the start to the end of the disease.
DISINFECTANT
n [L. des, negative;inficere, to taint]
A physical or chemical substance that is used to eradicate fungi or bacteria. cf[DISINFESTANT]
DISINFESTANT
n [L. des, negative; infestere, to be hostile]
A substance used to kill or inactivate external organisms before infection can occur. cf[DISINFECTANT]
DISK
n [L. discus, disc]
The fleshy outgrowth developed from the receptacle at the base of the ovary or from the stamens surrounding the ovary it often secretes nectar. q.v. DISC.
DISORDER
n [L. des, negative; ordinare, ordain]
A lack of order. A confused or untidy state.
DISSEMINATION
n [L. disseminare, to scatter seed]
The spread of infectious substances or organisms. Usually applied to infection of healthy organism from an infected one.
DISTAL
a [L. distare, to stand apart]
Referring to an area of an organism or plant that is furthest from the point of attachment to the body.
DISTAL END
a [L. distare, to stand apart; endus, end]
(of cuttings) The end that was originally farthest from the crown of the parent plant. (Cf. PROXIMINAL END.)
DISTICHOUS
a [Gk. distichos, with two rows]
A stem with leaves that alternate left and right with an angle of 180 degrees between the leaves. Image /leafshapes/36?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DIURNAL
a [L. diurnus, pertaining to the day length]
Opening or active during the day or any pattern that recurs daily.
DIVISION
n [L. divisio, division]
A method of increasing plants by dividing them into pieces each with a root system and a more shoots (or dormant buds)
DNA
n [L. de away; Fr. oxygene, acidifying; ribonucleic acid]
The self replicating spiral molecule which carries all the hereditary information of all living things. It usually resides in the nucleus and makes up the chromosomes which carries the genes. It is formed from nucleotides each containing the sugar deoxyribose, a low energy phosphate group and one of four different bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.
DOLIFPOR SEPTUM
n [L. dolium, wine-cask; Gk. poros, channel; L. septum, partition]
In Basidiomycota fungi the wall structure that separates the cells and containing a dolipore which allows the passage of small organelles, but restricts the movement of the nucleus.
DOLIIFORM
a [L. dolium, wine-cask]
Shaped like a barrel. alt[DOLIOFORM]
DOLIOFORM
a [L. dolium, wine-cask]
Shaped like a barrel. alt[DOLIIFORM]
DOLIPORE
n [L. dolium, wine-cask; Gk. poros, channel]
The pore in the septum or wall of the hyphae of Basiciomycetes. It is barrel shaped and covered by pore caps. These caps are curved shaped and found on either side of pores in the dolipore septum which separates cells within the hypha.
DORMANCY
n [L. dornire, to sleep]
The state of temp cessation of growth and slowing down of other activities in whole plants usually during the winter. Seed dormancy: non-germination of seed when placed in conditions suitable for germination due to physical, chemical or other factors inherent in the seed: double (seed) dormancy non-germination of seeds due to two dormancy factors in the seed.
DORSAL
a [L. dorsum, back]
Upper surface.
DORSIFIXED
a [L. dorsum, back; fingere, fix]
(of anthers) having the filament attached to the back of the anthler. cf basifixed.
DOUBLE
n [L. duplus, two]
Flower whose genetic makeup has been modified so that they produce large petals from all its florets or with twice its normal compliment of petals for its class. See Flower. Image /flowerinfos/32?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DOUBLE CORDON
a [L. duplus, two; chorda, gut, string]
A trained plant (usually a fruit tree) generally restricted to one main stem by rigorous pruning. A single cordon has one main stem, a double, or "U", cordon has two, and a multiple cordon, three or more stems.
DOUBLE DIGGING
v [L. duplus, two]
Digging the soil to twice the depth of the spade then adding humus and mixing the top soil first then the second layer on top, with more humus.
DRAINAGE
n [Gmc. rel to dry]
The passage of excess water hrough soil the term is also applied to systems of drainage used to remove excess water.
DREPANIUM
n [Gk. drepane, sickle]
(of inflorescences) A cymose inflorescence with successive branches on one side only normally flattened in one plane and curved to one side Image /flowerinfos/24?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
DRILL
n [Gmc. drillich, drilling]
A narrow, straight furrow in he soil in which seeds are sown m seedlings planted.
DRUPE
n [Gk. dryppa, olive]
A fleshy fruit containing one or more seeds, each of which is surrounded by a stony layer
DUPLEX
a [L. duplex, two fold]
Having two distinct structures or parts.
E
EARTHING UP
n [OE. eorthe, earth; upp, up]
Drawing up soil around he base of a plant to help prevent vind-rock, to blanch the stems, or to encourage stem rooting.
ECHINULATE
a [Gk. echinos, covered in spines]
Covered with pointed outgrowths. alt[TRIBOLOID]
ECONOMIC INJURY LEVEL
n [Gk. oikonomia, household management; L.injuria, a wrong]
The lowest level of population density of a pest that causes damage equal to the cost of the control measures used.
ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
n [Gk. oikonomia, household management; L. limen, threshold]
The population density of a pest that is allowed before control measures is applied to stop the pest from reaching the economic injury level.
ECTOPARASITE
n [Gk. ektos, outside; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EPIZOON EXOPARASITE]
ECTOSITE
n [Gk. ektos, outside; sitos, food]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EPIZOON, EXOPARASITE]
ECTOZOON
n [Gk. ektos, outside; zoon, animal]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EXOPARASITE]
EDEMA
n [Gk. oidema, swelling]
us spelling of [OEDEMA] A swelling of tissues, usually caused by excess fluid in the cavities between cells or tissues of the body.
EGG
n [A.S. aeg, egg]
The reproductive female gamete, organ or body of animals. alt[OVUM]
EGUTTULATE
a [L. ex, out; gutta, drop]
Of cells or spores which do not contain oil-like droplets. see [GUTTATE, GUTTULATE]
EIA
n acronym [Enzyme immunosorbent assay]
It is a diagnostic tool in medicine and biology, as well as a quality control check. Antigens or anitbodies are captured by an enzyme attach to a substrate. When attached there is a colour change or UV light might cause fluorescent. alt[ELISA]
EJACULATE
n L. ejaculatus, thrown out]
The emitted seminal fluid which is thrown out with some force. cf.[JACULATE]
ELAIOSOME
n [Gk. elaion, oil; soma, body]
A fleshy outgrowth on a seed with oily substances attractive to ants. Such as the caruncle of castor oil.
ELISA
n acronym [Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay]
It is a diagnostic tool in medicine and biology, as well as a quality control check. Antigens or anitbodies are captured by an enzyme attach to a substrate. When attached there is a colour change or UV light might cause fluorescent. alt[EIA]
ELLIPTIC
a [Gk. elleipsis, a falling short]
(of leaves) Oval-shaped, with narrowed ends Image /leafshapes/5?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
ELYTRON
n [L. elytron, sheath]
Plural[ELYTRA]. The anterior wing of insects especially beetles, which is hard and case-like. alt [ELYTRUM]
ELYTRUM
n [L. elytron, sheath]
Plural[ELYTRA]. The anterior wing of insects especially beetles, which is hard and case-like. alt [ELYTRON]
EMARGINATE
a [L. ex, out; marginare, to delimit]
(of leaves) The leaves have a shallow notch at the tip. Image /leafshapes/68?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
EMBRYO
n [Gk. embryon, embro]
The rudimentary plant within the seed.
EMBRYO SAC
n [Gk. embryon, embro;L.saccus, sack]
The central portion of the ovule a thin-walled sac. within the nucellus containing the egg nucleus.
ENATION
n [L. enatus, grown from]
An outgrowth from a normally smooth surface.
ENDEMIC
a [Gk. endemos, native]
Referring to something that is restrictive to a certain region. Native ti that area.
ENDOCARP
n [Gk. endon, within; karpus, fruit]
The innermost layer of the ovary wall (pericarp) of a fruit. In some fruits it becomes hard and "stony" cf DRUPE.
ENDOCONIDIUM
n [Gk. endon, within; konis, dust, idion, dim.]
A spore(conidium) formed in a conidiophore(hypha).
ENDODERMIS
n [Gk. endon, within; derma, skin]
The innermost single cell layer, without intercellular spaces, of the cortical cells in plants that is located between the cortex and the vascular system (xylem and phloem), but outside of the pericycle. This single cell layer is coated with suberin which forms the casparian strip, which is impervious to water and forcing water carrying mineral salts to enter the root through the interior of cells (the symplast) as opposed to passing between cells (the apoplast).
ENDOSPERM
n [Gk. endon, within; sperm, seed]
The nutritious tissue of most seeds, usually surrounding the embryo. q.v.[ALBUMEN]
ENSIFORM
a [L. ensis, sword; forma, shape]
(of leaves) Shaped like a sword, as the leaf of an Iris. Image /leafshapes/6?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
ENTEROBLAST
n [Gk. enteron, gut, blastos, bud]
In the gut enteroblasts are precursors cells that do not divide any more but can differentiate into enterocytes cells(intestinal absorptive cells) or enteroendocrine cells(hormone producers)
ENTEROBLASTIC FUNGI
n [Gk. enteron, gut; blastos, bud; L. fungus, mushroom]
Are fungi where conidia are produced, usually from a phialide, without the inner wall of the phailide being directly involved in the formation of the conidium wall.
ENTIRE
a [O.F. entier, untouched]
(of leaves) With an undivided margin. Image /leafshapes/27?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
ENZYME
n [Gk. en, in;zyme, leaven]
A protien based catalyst produced by living organisms, which acts on one or more substrates. cf.[COENZYME]
EPICALYX
n [Gk. epi, upon; kalyk, cup]
A whorl of sepal-like appendages resembling the calyx but outside the true calyx.
EPICHILE
n [Gk. epi, upon. chellos,lip]
In orchids the lip which is divided into three parts known as the hypochile, mesochile and epichile. The terminal part of the lip in some orchids, distinctly different from the basal part. See HYPOCHILE, MESOCHILE
EPICORMIE
n [Gk. epi, upon; kormos, trunk]
Shoots that develop from latent or adventitious buds on or from the 'trunk of a tree or shrub. (See also WATER SHOOTS.)
EPIDEMIC
n [Gk. epidemia, prevelance of a disease]
An uncontrolled rapid increase of a disease or a pest
EPIDEMIOLOGY
n [Gk. epidemia, prevelance of a disease; legein, to speak]
The study of the initiation, development and spread of a disease or pest.
EPIDERMIS
n [Gk. epi, upon; derma, skin]
Usually a single layer of living cells forming the protective covering to many plant organs, particularly leaves,
EPIGEAL
n [Gk. epi, upon; ge, earth]
Type of seed germination in which the seed is pushed above soil level by elongation of the hypocotyl. Cf HYPOGEAL.
EPIGYNOUS
a [Gk. epi, upon; gyne, woman]
(of flowers) With the sepals, petals and stamens inserted near the top of the ovary.
EPINASTY
n [Gk. epi, upon; nastos, pressed down]
A downward curving of leaves or other plant parts, resulting from greater growth of the upper side.
EPIPARASITE
n [Gk. epi, upon; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIZOON, EXOPARASITE]
EPIPETALOUS
a [Gk. epi, upon; petalon, leaf]
Attached to the petals or corolla.
EPIPHYLLOUS
a [Gk. epi, upon; phylon, leaf]
Growing on leaves.
EPIPHYTE
n [Gk. epi, upon; phyton, plant]
A plant that grows on another plant without being parasitic, and ) obtains moisture and nutrients from the atmosphere without rooting into the soil.
EPIZOON
n [Gk. epi, upon; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARSITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EXOPARASITE]
ERADICATION
n [L. eradicare, tear up from the roots]
The elimination of an organism from an area.
ERECT
a [L. erigere, to raise up]
(of an ovule) Upright, with its stalk at the base.
ERIEACEOUS
a [Gk. ereike ]
1) Term describing plants of the family Ericaceae, usually lime-hating and requiring soils of )H6.5 or less (see also CALCIFUGE). 2) Of compost, with an appropriate pH or acidity for growing ericaceous plants.
ERUMPENT
a [L. erumpere, to break out]
Bursting through the surface.
ESPALIER
n [L. spatula, shoulder blade]
A plant trained with the main stem vertical and (usually) three or more tiers of branches horizontally) laced on either side in a single plane often applied to fruit trees.
ETIOLOGY
n [Gk. aitia, cause; logos, discourse]
The science OR study of the origin of causes. alt [AEITOLOGY]
EVERGREEN
a [O.E. oefre, of unkown origin; grene, rel to grass]
Of plants that retain their foliage for more than one growing season semi-evergreen plants retain only a small proportion of their leaves for more than one season
EXALATE
a [L. ex, without; ala wing]
Wingless. Having no wing-like extentions on stems or petioles. alt APTEROUS
EXINE
n [L. exter, outside ]
The outer layer of the wall of a pollen grain. q.v. EXTINE
EXOCARP
n [Gk. exo, without; karpos, fruit]
The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
EXOPARASITE
n [Gk. exo, outside; pasasitos, parasite]
A parasite that lives on the outside of an organism. alt[ECTOPARASITE, ECTOSITE, ECTOZOON, EPIPARISITE, EPIZOON]
EXSERTED
a [L. exserere, to syretch out]
Protruding beyond some organ or part. (appl. stamens which protrude beyond the corolla.)
EXSTIPULATE
a [L. ex, without; stipula, stem]
Without stipules. (alt. astipulate, estipulate, instipulate]
EXTINE
n [L. exter, outside ]
The outer layer of the wall of a pollen grain. q.v. EXINE
EXTRORSE
a [L. extrorsus, outwardly]
(of anthers) Opening away from the axis of growth towards the corolla. (appl. dihesence of anthlers.)
EXUDATE
n [L. exudare, to sweat]
A substance that is secreted, exuded or discharged.
EXUDATION
n [L. exudare, to sweat]
The discharge of substances from a cell or organism through a membrane, incision or gland. e.g. resins or moisture
EXUVIAE
n [L. exuere, to strip off]
The cast off skins, shells of arthropods.
EYE
n [A.S. eage, eye]
1) A dormant or latent growth )ad, such as the eye of a potato or diahlia tuber. 2) The centre of a flower especially if different in colour from he petals.
F
F1 HYBRIDS
n [L. hibrida, cross]
First-generation plants obtained from crossing two selected ) pure-breeding parents to produce uniform, vigorous, and high-yielding offspring. Seed from F1 hybrids does not come true. F2 hybrids: plants that result from self- or cross-fertilization of F1 hybrids they are less uniform than heir parents.
FACULA
n [L. fac, torch]
plu. [FACULAE] A bright spot. Especially on the surface of the sun.
FACULTIVE ORGANISM
n [L. facultas, ability; Gk. organnon, instrument]
A faculative organisms are organisms that are capable of adopting an alternative mode of living. e.g. a facultative anaerobe is an aerobic organism that can also grow under anaerobic conditions like yeast in winemaking; or a faculative parasite/saprophyte changing from living as a saprophyte to a parasite or vice versa.
FALCATE
a [L. falx, sickle]
(of leaves) Curved and tapering to a point, sickle-shaped Image /leafshapes/7?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FALLOW
a [O.E. faelgian, to break up]
Inactive. Of farmland that is ploughed and harrowed and left for the weather to break up.
FALLOW
n [O.E. falu, yellow]
A pale brown or reddish-yellowish colour.
FALLS
n [OE. fallan, downfall]
The pendent or horizontally placed tepals or petals of irises and some related plants.
FALSE UMBEL
n [L. falsum, fraud; umbella, shade]
A multiply branched-off inflorescence with the flowers located at essentially one level or situated spherically
FAMILY
n [L. familia, household]
A category in plant classificaion, a grouping together of related genera, for example the family Rosaceae includes the genera Rosa, iorbus, Rubus, Prunus, and Pyracantha.
Family
n[L. familia, household]
A taxonomic classification group in plants and animals. It is above Genus and below Order in the classification system. A family consist of a group of related genera. Families are grouped into Orders and use to be called natural orders.
FASCIATION
L. [Fascia, Bundle]
Fasciation is a malformation in plant shoots, roots or flower tips where the growth tend to be thick and flattened. It occurs when something goes wrong with the cells at the growing tips of plants. Instead of growing normally the growing tip spreads laterally in a flattened or band-like growth. It has many causes and is usually a genetic mutation as some plants like the Cockscomb(Celosia) are grown for their flattened flowerhead. It can also be caused by a hormonal imbalance caused by mites or insect attack and bacteria such as Rhodococcus fascians or any damage to the growing tip. Herbicides containing growth regulators is a common cause of fasciation in gardens. Fasciation although rare, has been observed in over a hundred different plant species from Cactae, Succulents, Perennials to trees. Image /pests/170?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FASCICLE
n [L. fasciculus, small bundle]
A cluster or bundle.
FATIGIATE
a [L. fastigere, to slope up]
With the branches (usually ) of trees and shrubs) growing vertically and almost parallel with the main stem. See UPRIGHT TERM
FEATHERED
a [M.E. fether, feather]
Of maiden trees that have several lateral branches ("feathers").
FEBRIFUGE
n [L. febris, fever; fugare, to cause to flee]
A drug or medication that reduces fever; an antipyretic.
FEMALE FLOWER
n [L. femina woman; flos, flower]
A flower containing functional carpels, but not stamens.
FERTILE
a [L. fertilis, fertile]
(of plants). Producing viable seed shoots bearing flowers are also said to be fertile shoots as opposed to non-flowering (sterile) shoots.
FERTILIZATION
n [L. fertilis, fertile]
The fusion of a pollen grain nucleus (male) with an ovule (female) to form a fertile seed. Fibrous. l) Of roots, fine and often branching and dense. 2) Of loam, containing fibre derived from (dead) grass roots.
FILAMENT
n [L. filum, thread]
The stalk of the stamen which bears the anther. Image /flowerinfos/12?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FILIFORM
a [L. filum, threadlike; forma, shape]
Thread-like. Image /leafshapes/100?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FIMBRIATE
n [L. frimbriatus, fringed]
Of part of a plant that has a fringed margin. Plant organs with a fringe of hairs are said to be ciliate.
FLABELLATE
a [L. flabellare, to fan]
(of leaves) The leaf leaflets are aranged in a fan shape. Image /leafshapes/69?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=1
FLAGELLATE
a [L. flagellum, whip]
Having flagella. Like a flagellum.
FLAGELLUM
n [L. flagellum, whip]
A whip like appendage of motive cells. The distal part of the antennae of some arthopods, as in the Order Diptera(true flies). A long slim runner or creeping stem. plu.[FLAGELLA]
FLAT
n [mod. from flat]
An American term for a shallow seed-box or container.
FLAT GRAFTING
v [O.F. graffe, graft]
A method often used to graft cacti, where the cuts are flat and placed together. See GRAFTING.
FLOATING CLOCHE
n [O.E flotian, float;Fr. cloche, bell]
Lightweight sheet, usually of woven polypropylene (fibre fleece), placed over a crop, which is lifted up by the plants as they grow. It provides some frost protection while allowing water and light penetration. Also known as floating mulch. (See also Cloche.)
FLORET
n [L. flos, flower]
A (generally) small flower in a flowerhead consisting of many flowers.
FLOWER
n [L. flos, flower]
The part of the plant containing the reproductive organs usually surrounded by sepals and petals. The basic flower forms are: single, with one row of usually four to six petals semi-double, with two or three times the normal number of petals usually in two or three rows double, with more than the normal number of petals in several rows with few or no stamens produced fully double, flowers usually rounded in shape, with densely packed petals and with the stamens obscured or absent. (Cf FLOWERHEAD.)
FLOWERHEAD
n [L. flos,flower;ME. hede, head]
A mass of small flowers or florets that together appear to form a single flower as in members of the family Compositae.
FOLLICLE
n [L. folliculus, small sac]
A dry fruit which is derived from a single carpel and which splits open along one side only.
FORCE
n [L. fortis, strong]
To induce plant growth, usually of flowers or fruit by control of the environment, normally by increasing the temperature.
FORMA
n [L. forma, shape]
(f.) A variant within a species usually distinguished only by minor characteristics. Clematis montana f. grandiflora is a larger-flowered, more vigorous form of C. montana also loosely used for any variant of a species.
FORMATIVE PRUNING
v [L. forma, shape; O.F. proignier,]
A method of pruning that is carried out on young trees and shrubs to develop the basic branch structure of the desired form or shape.
FOUNDATION PLANTING
v [L. fundare, bottom; planta, sprout]
The basic, and usually permanent, structural and shelter planting of trees and shrubs in a garden.
FRAME
n [O.E. framain, be usaeful]
A box loke structure made of glass or plastic in which plants are grown. See COLD FRAME
FRAME-WORKING
n [O.E. framain, be useful; weorc, work]
(of fruit trees). Pruning back all side growths to the main framework and grafting scions of a different cultivar onto each main framework branch.
FRAMEWORK
n [O.E. framain, be useful; weorc, work]
The permanent branch structure of a tree or shrub the main branches that determine its ultimate shape.
FRAMEWORK PLANTS
n [O.E. framian, be useful; weorc, work; plante, seedling]
the plants in a garden that form the basis or structure of the design. (Cf. FOUNDATION PLANTING)
FREE
a [A.S. freo, acting at pleasure]
(of petals, sepals, etc.) Not joined to each other or to any other organ.
FREE CENTRAL PLACENTATION
a[A.S. freo, acting at pleasure;L. centrum, centre; placenta, flat cake]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne on placentas on a free, central column within an ovary that has only one locule. cf. AXILE PLACENTATION
FRENCH LAYERING
n [O.E. frencisc, frank;M.E.layer, mason]
Involves digging a bit of a trench under the prospective branch, then pegging it down into that trench somehow (stiff wire U shaped deals maybe?) and filling a couple inches of soil over the branch. No hormones or wounding are used in this method. See LAYERING.
FRIABLE
a [L. friabilis, to crumble]
(of soil). Of a good, crumbly texture capable of forming a tilth that can be worked easily. Easily powdered.
FROND
n [L. frons, leafy branch]
1) The leaf-like organ of a fern. Some ferns produce both barren and fertile fronds, the latter bearing spores. 2) Loosely applied to large, usually compound leaves such as those of palms.
FROST HARDY
a [O.E. forst, to freeze; M.E. hardi, become bold]
A plant that can withstand temperatures below zero degrees. See HARDY.
FROST POCKET
n [O.E. forst, to freeze;M.E. poket, pouch]
A site, often a hollow, where cold air gathers, that is subject to severe and often prolonged frosts.
FROST TENDER
a [O.E. forst, to freeze;L. tener, delicate]
A plant that cannot withstand temperatures below zero degrees. See TENDER.
FRUIT
n [L. fructus, fruit]
Strictly the ripened ovary of a seed plant and its contents. Loosely, the whole structure containing ripe seeds, which may include more than the ovary cf achene, berry, capsule, drupe, follicle, nut, samara.
FRUIT
n [L. fructus, fruit]
The fertilized, ripe ovary of a plant containing one to many seeds, for example, berries, hips, capsules, and nuts the term is also used of edible fruits. Strictly the ripened ovary of a seed plant and its contents. Loosely, the whole structure containing ripe seeds, which may include more than the ovary cf achene, berry, capsule, drupe, follicle, nut, samara.
FRUIT BUD
n [L. fructus, fruit; M.E. budde, bud]
An outgrowth which develops into flowers and then into fruit. for example apples have specialised fruiting budds. See BUD.
FRUIT BUD
n [L. frug, fruit]
A bud from which leaves and flowers (followed by fruits) develop. See BUD.
FRUIT SET
n [L. fructus, fruit;secta, sect]
The successful development of fruits after pollination and fertilization.
FUGACIOUS
a [L. fugax, fleeting]
Withering or falling off rapidily. Alt. CADUCOUS. See DECIDUOUS
FULLY DOUBLE
a [O.E. full; L. duplus, double]
A composite flower which has all its petals, not jst the outer ones elongated. Most double flowers are sterile and are a horticultural development of a single flowered type. See FLOWER.
FULLY REFLEXED
a [O.E. full; L. reflectere, to turn back]
A flower with all its petals turned back 180 degrees, like the Turks Cap lilly. See REFLEXED.
FUNGICIDE
n [L. fungus, mushroom; -cidium, kill]
A chemical that kills fungi, especially those responsible for various plant diseases.
FUNICLE
n [L. funiculus, small cord]
The stalk of an ovule.
G
GAMOPETALOUS
a [Gk. gamo, marriage; petalon, leaf]
With petals fused into a tube, at least at the base. q.v. SYMPETALOUS, cf. MONOPETALOUS, POLYPETALOUS
GAMOSEPALOUS
a [Gk. gamos, marriage; F. sepale, sepal]
With sepals fused, at least at the base. cf, MONOSEPALOUS, POLYSEPALOUS.
GENUS
n [L. genus, race]
(pl. genera). A category in plant classification ranked between family and species. A group of related species linked by a range of common characters for example, all species of horse chestnut are grouped under the genus Aesculus. (See also CULTIVAR, FAMILY, FORMA, HYBRED, SUBSPECIES, and VARIETY.)
GERMINATION
n [L. gernen, bud]
The physical and chemical changes that take place as a seed starts to grow and develop into a plant.
GIANT-ROSETTE PLANTS
n [Gk. gigant, giant; F. rose, rose; l. planta, plant]
A tree without branches that has a top of large leaves at the end of the trunk, such as virtually all palms.
GIMPED
n [from Dut. unknown origin]
(of leaves) scalloped or rounded tooth margin. q.v. CRENATE
GIRDLING
v [Gmc. gird, girth]
1) The removal of bark all round a stem or branch caused by animal or physical damage or by a constricting tie that prevents the flow of water and nutrients to the upper part of the plant, eventually causing the death of all the tissue above the girdled trunk or branch. 2) See Bark-ringing.
GLABROUS
a [L. glaber, smooth]
Without hairs or projections (smooth).
Gland
n [L. gland, acorn]
Secreting organ producing oil, resin, nectar, water, etc. cf HYDATHODE, NECTARY.
GLAUCOUS
a [L. glaucus, sea-green]
With a waxy, grayish-blue bloom.
GLOBOSE
a [L. globulus, small globe]
Spherical, rounded.
GLUME
n [L. gluma, husk]
One of the two chaffy basal bracts of a grass spikelet.
GRAFT
n [O.E. graffe, graft]
To join artificially one or more plant parts to another.
GRAFT UNION
n [O.E. graffe, graft; L. unio, unity]
The point at which scion and rootstock are joined.
GRAFTING
v [O.F. graffe, graft]
A method of propagation by which an artificial union is made between the scion of one plant and the rootstock of another so that they eventually function as one plant. Methods include apical-wedge grafting, bud-grafting (including chip-budding and T -budding,), flat grafting, saddle grafting, side grafting, side-wedge grafting, spliced side grafting, spliced side-veneer grafting, whip (or splice) grafting, and whip-and-tongue grafting.
GRAFTING TAPE
n [O.F. graffe, graft]
Tape used to protect a graft union during healing. It is usually impervious to water but let air through. This combination is perfect for grafting which requires a barrier to keep moisture in while allowing oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through.
GRAIN
n [L. granum, grain]
A single seed of fruit or cereal. See CORYOPSIS.
GREEN MANURE
n [O.E. grene, green;O.Fr. manouvrer, movement]
A quick-maturing, leafy crop such as mustard that is grown specifically to be dug back into, and thereby enrich, the soil.
GREENWOOD CUTTING
n [Gmc. relative to grass & grow]
A cutting taken from the soft tips of young growth after the spring growth flush has slowed down slightly harder and woodier stems than are used for softwood cuttings. See also: Cutting.
GROUND COLOUR
a [O.E. grund, ground; L. color, colour]
Main (background) colour of petals.
GROUND COVER
n [O.E. grund, ground; L. couperire, to cover]
Usually low growing plants that quickly Cover the soil surface and suppress weeds.
GROWTH BUD
n [O.E.growan,grow;M.E. budde, bud]
A growth bud occurs at the tip of a stem, or along the stem, and produces leafy growth. See BUD.
GROWTH BUD
n [O.E. growan, of Gmc origin rel to grass and green]
A bud from which only leaves or a shoot develop. See BUD.
GUTTATE
a [L. gutta, drop]
Having drop like markings. Containing small drop like substances.
GUTTATION
N [L. gutta, drop]
The formation of water droplets on plants from moisture in the atmosphere. The exudation of liquid from nectaries or hydathodes.
GUTTULATE
a [L. gutta, drop]
In the form of small drop. Containing small droplets of oil-like substances. see [EGUTTULATE]
GYNOBASIC STYLE
n [Gk. gyne, woman; L. basis, base]
A style that arises near the base of a deeply-lobed ovary . alt GYNOBASE
GYNOECIUM
n [Gk. gyne, woman; oikos, house]
All the female reproductive organs of a flower, comprising one or more free or fused carpels.
GYNOPHORE
n [Gk. gyne, woman;pherein, to carry
Stalk of a carpel or gynoecium.
GYPSOPHIL
a [Gk. gypsos, chalk; philein, to love]
Thriving on clalk or gypsum soils. Alt. GYPSOPHIL, CALICOLE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE.
GYPSOPHYTE
n [Gk. gypsos, chalk; phyton, plant]
A plant thriving on clalk or gypsum soils. Alt. GYPSOPHIL, CALICOLE. See CALCIFUGE, SILICOLE.
H
HABIT
n [L. habitus, appearance
The characteristic mode of growth or occurrence: the form and shape of a plant.
HALF HARDY
a [O.E. heard, hard; O.Fr. hardir, become bold]
Used of a plant not tolerating frost in a Qiven climatic zone. The term generally implies an ability to withstand lower temperatures than tender.
HALF STANDARD
a [O.E. healf, half; O.Fr. estandart, extend]
A tree or shrub that has a clear stem of 1-1.Sm (3-5ft) between ground level and the lowest branches. See STANDARD.
HALM
n [A.S. haelm, stem]
See HAULM q.v.
HALOPHYTE
n [Gk. helos, marsh; phyton, plant]
A plant that tolerates salty conditions.
HAPLOID
n [Gk. haploos, simple]
Of an organism having the same number of chromosomes as gametes or sperm or unfertilised egg. alt[HEMIKARYOTIC] cf.[DIPLOID, DUPLEX]
HARDENING OFF
v [O.E. heard, hard; of, of]
Gradually acclimatizing plants that have been raised under cover to cooler, outdoor conditions.
HARDPAN
a [O.E. heard, hard; panne, pan]
A hard layer developed in the B-horizon of the soil, consisting of deposited salts, which restricts drainage and root growth. See PAN.
HARDWOOD CUTTING
n [O.E. Hard, heard of Gmc origin]
A cutting taken from mature wood of both deciduous and evergreen plants at the end of the growing season See Cutting.
HARDY
a [O.E. hardir, become bold]
Able to withstand year-round climatic conditions, including frost. without protection.
HASTATE
a [L. hasta, spear]
(of leaves) Having the shape of an arrowhead but with the basal lobes pointed and flaring outwards at the base. Image /leafshapes/8?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=2
HAULM
n [A.S. haelm, stem]
The top-growth of plants such as potatoes and legumes. alt. HALM
HAUSTORIUM
n [L. haurire, to drink]
A peg-like fleshy outgrowth from a parasitic plant. usually embedded in the host plant and drawing nourishment from it.
HEAD
n [O.E. heafod, head]
1) The part of a tree above a clear trunk. 2) A dense inflorescence of small, crowded, often stalkless, flowers - a capitulum.
HEAD BACK
v [O.E. heafod, head; baec, back]
To prune back the main branches of trees or shrubs by half or more.
HEADING
v [O.E. deafod, head]
See HEART UP.
HEART UP
a [O.E. heorte, heart]]
The stage at which vegetables such as lettuces or cabbage, begin to produce tight "hearts" or "heads" of inner leaves.
HEAVY
a [O.E. hefig,heavy]
(of soil). Having a high proportion of clay.
HEEL
n [A.S. hela,heel]
A small piece or strip of bark or wood that is retained at the base of a cutting when it is pulled away from a main stem.
HEELCUTTING
n [Gmc. rel to hough]
A cutting taken with a portion of the bark or mature wood at the base. See Cutting.
HEELING IN
v [A.S. hela, heel; inne, inn]
Temporary planting until a plant can be placed in its permanent position.
HELICOID
a [Gk. helix, spiral; eidos, like]
(of cymose inflorescences) Coiled like a spring. A type of sympodial branching in which sympodium consists of forked branchesof the same side. See DREPANIUM
HEMIKARYOTIC
a [Gk. hemi, half; karyon, nucleus]
Of an organism having the same number of chromosomes as gametes or sperm or unfertilised egg. alt[HEMIKARYOTIC] cf.[DIPLOID, DUPLEX]
HERB
n [L. herba, green crop]
1) A plant grown for its medicinal or flavouring properties or for its scented foliage. 2) Botanicall}-. a herbaceous plant.
HERBACEOUS
a [L. herbaceus, grassy]
A non-woody plant in which the upper parts die down to a rootstock at the end of the growing season. It is chiefly applied to perennials, although botanically it also applies to annuals and biennials.
HERBICIDE
n [L. herba, green crop; cide, kill]
A chemical used to control or kill weeds.
HERMAPHRODITE
n [Gk. hermaphroditos, combining both sexes]
Plants whose flowers have both male and female organs. See HERMAPHRODITIC, alt. MONOCLINOUS.
HERMAPHRODITIC
a [Gk. hermaphroditos, combining both sexes]
Describing plants whose flowers have both male and female reproductive organs.
HETEROKARYOSIS
n Gk.[heteros, other; karyon, kernel]
A biological term common in fungi, lichen and slime moulds meaning a cell or body with two or more genetically different nuclei. This condition can also be artificially induced in vitro, to study the interaction between the components of cells from different species. Adj. HETEROKARYOTIC.
HETEROKARYOTIC
a Gk.[heteros, other; karyon, kernel]
A biological term common in fungi, lichen and slime moulds describing a cell or body with two or more genetically different nuclei. This condition can also be artificially induced in vitro, to study the interaction between the components of cells from different species. Alternate HETEROKARYOSIS.
HILUM
n [L. hilum, trifle]
The scar left on a seed marking the point of attachment to the stalk of the ovule.
HIRSUTE
a [L. hirsutus,shaggy]
Covered in rough, coarse hairs. Honey guide Markings (eg lines or dots) on the perianth which direct insects to the nectar.
HUMUS
n [L. humus, earth]
The chemically complex organic residue of decayed vegetable matter in soil. Also often used to describe partly decayed matter such as leaf mould or compost.
HYBRID
n [L. hibrida, cross]
The offspring of genetically different parents usually of distinct taxa (see TAXON). Hybrids between species of the same genus are known as interspecifie hybrids. Those between different but usually closely related genera are known as intergeneric hybrids. (See also Fl HYBRIDS and F2 HYBRIDS. INTERSPECIFIC HYBRID)
HYBRID VIGOUR
n [L. hibrida, cross; vigere, be lively]
An improvement in growth and yield shown by most hybrids and thought to be due to increased heterozygosity. q.v. heterosis
HYBRIDIZATION
n [L. hibrida, cross]
The process by which hybrids are formed. Uusually the cross-fertilization between two different, but similar species.
HYDATHODE
n [Gk. hydatos, of water;hodos, way]
A specialized gland, usually found in leaves that exude water.
HYDATHODE
n [Gk. kydatos, of water]
An epidermal structure specialised for exudation of water.
HYDROCULTURE
n [Gk. hydor, water; L. colere, to till]
The cultivation of plants in nutrient-rich water. sometime with sterile aggregates. (See also HYDROPONICS.)
HYDROPHYTE
n [Gk. hydor, water; phyton, plant]
An aquatic plant.
HYDROPONICS
n [Gk. hydor, water; ponos, exertion]
Growing plants in dilute solution of nutrients. Applied loosely to any form of soilless culture.
HYPANTHIUM
n [Gk. hypo,under; anthos, flower]
A cup-shaped enlargement of the floral receptacle or the bases of the floral parts, which often enlarges and surrounds the fruits, eg the fleshy tissue in rose-hips.
HYPHA
n [Gk. hyphe, web]
The thread-like unit of construction of fungi.
HYPOCHILE
n [Gk. hypo,under. chellos,lip]
In orchids the lip which is divided into three parts known as the hypochile, mesochile and epichile. The basal part of the lip. In the genus Coryanthes with a horizontal cut the hypochile resembles a helmet of the fireman with its characteristical neck-protection. The globular- or hood-shaped portion of the orchid flower lip. See EPICHILE, MESOCHILE
HYPOCTYL
n [Gk. hypo, under; kotyle, cup]
The portion of a seed or seedling just below the cotyledons.
HYPOGEAL
a [Gk. hypo, under; ge, earth]
Type of seed germination in which the seed and cotyledons remain below the soil surface while the youngest shoot (plumule) emerges above soil level.
HYPOGYNOUS
a [Gk. hypo, under; gyne, female]
(of flowers) With the sepals, petals and stamens attached to the receptacle or axis, below and free from the ovary.
I
IMBRICATE
a [L. imbricare, to tile]
(of sepals and petals) Overlapping, as in a tiled roof.
IMPARIPINNATE
a [L. impar, unequal, pinna, wing]
(of leaves) A pinnate leaf with an unpaired terminal leaflet occurring centrally. cf. PARIPINNATE Image /leafshapes/45?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=2
INAPERTURATE
a [L. in, not; aperatura, to open]
(of pollen grains) Without an aperture without any pores or furrows.
INCISED
a [L. incisus, to cut into]
(of leaves) Sharply and deeply cut. Image /leafshapes/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=2
INCOMPATIBLE
n [L. in, not; compatibilis,compatable]
Of plants between which hybrids cannot be formed.
INCURVATE
a [L. incurvus, bent]
Curved inwards or bent backwards. cf[INFLECTED, INCURVED, INFLEXED]
INCURVED
a [L. incurvus, bent]
Applied to petals of flowers and florets that curve inwards to form a compact. rounded shape. Incurving flowerheads are less compact with more loosely arranged but still incurved florets.
INDEFINITE
a [L. in, not; definitus, limited]
(of flower parts) Of a number large enough to make a precise count difficult.
INDEHISCENT
a [L. in not; dehiscens, gaping]
Of a fruit that does not split open to release its seeds. Cf . DEHISCENT.
INDUMENTUM
n [L. indumentum, covering]
A covering, usually of hairs.
INFECTION
n [L. inficere, to taint]
An invasion or condition caused by fungi or bacteria. cf.[INFESTATION]
INFERIOR
a [L. inferior, lower]
of ovaries) An ovary with the sepals, petals and stamens attached to its apex.
INFESTATION
n [L. infestare, to be hostile]
an invasion by external organisms. cf[INFECTION]
INFLECTED
a [L. inflectere, to ben inwards]
Curved or sharply bent inwards towards the axis. alt[INFLEXED] cf.[INCURVATE]
INFLEXED
a [L. inflectere, to brnd inwards]
Curved or sharply bent inwards towards the axis. alt[INFLECTED] cf.[INCURVATE]
INFLORESCENCE
n [L. inflorescere, to begin to blossom]
A group of flowers borne on a single axis (stem) for eample. racemes, panicles, and cynics. Informal. Applied to some cultivars of chrysanthemums, dahlias, and other flowers with irregular flower formation. Any arrangement of more than one flower, eg. bostryx, catkins, capitulum, cincinnus, compound, corymb, cyme, dichasium, panicle, raceme, rhipidium, simple, single, spadix, spike, thyrse verticillaster and umbel.
INFRUCTESCENCE
n [L. in, into; fructus, fruit]
A cluster of fruits, derived from an inflorescence.
INORGANIC
a [L. in not; Gk. organon, instrument]
Of a chemical compound, one that does not contain carbon. Inorganic fertilizers are refined from naturally occurring chemicals or produced artificially. (Cf. ORGANIC.)
INSECTICIDE
n [L. insectum, to cut into; cide, kill]
A pesticide used to control or kill insects.
INSERTED
a [L. insertus, joined]
Growing out of another organ.
INTEGUMENT
n [L. integumentum, covering]
(of ovules) The outer protective covering of the ovule usually two are found in angiosperms.
INTERCROPPING
v [L. inter, between; O.E. crop, pouch]
The growing of quick-maturing vegetable crops between slower-growing crops to make maximum use of the available space.
INTERDETERMINATE
a [L.inter, between; determinare, to limit]
1) Used of an inflorescence not terminated by a single flower, in which the primary axis (stem) continues to develop as the lower flowers open (e.g. a raceme as in delphiniums). 2) Used of tall or cordon tomatoes, which, in a suitable climate, can grow to an indefinite length. (Cf. DETERMINATE, SEMI-DETERMINATE.)
INTERGENERIC HYBRID
a [L. inter, between; genus, race; hibrida, cross]
1) A term applied to chysanthemums with flowerheads intermediate in shape between reflexed and incmved. 2) A hybrid with character, intermediate between its two parents. See HYBRID, INTERMEDIATE.
INTERNODAL CUTTING
n [L. inter, between; nodus, knot]
A cutting in which the basal cut is made between two nodes or growth buds. See Cutting.
INTERNODE
n [L. inter, between; nodus, knot]
The length of stem that lies between two leaf-joints (nodes).
INTERPLANTING
a [L. inter, between, Gk. phyton, plant]
1) The planting of fast-maturing plants between slower growing plants to provide a display while they mature. 2) The planting of two or more types of plants together to provide a display of different colours or textures (e.g. tulips among wallflowers). Often used in relation to bedding.
INTERSPECIFIC HYBRID
n [L. intre, between; species, particular kind; facere, to make; hibrida, cross]
A hybrid created by crossing two different species within the same genus. See HYBRID.
INTRORSE
a [L. introsus,inwards]
Directed and opening inwards toward the center of the flower cf. EXTROSE.
INVOLUCEL
n [Dim of L. involucrum, covering]
A whorl of bracteoles cf. BRACTEOLE.
INVOLUCRE
n [L. involucrum, covering]
A whorl of bracts beneath an inflorescence cf. BRACT, PHYLLARY.
IRREGULAR
n [L. in, not; regula, rule]
(of flowers) Not regular not divisible into halves by an indefinite number of longitudinal planes zygomorphic.
IRRIGATION
n [L. irrigare, moisten]
1) General term for watering. 2) The use of a system of basins, channels. or sprinkler systems to provide a controlled supply of water to plants.
ISOMETRIC
a [Gk. isos, equal; metrn, measure]
Having equal dimension, growth rate or size. Of muscles creating tension without changing length. A method of drawing where the bottom and top edges are drawn at 30 degrees. A mathematics transformation without change of shape or size.
J
JACULATE
v [L.jaculator, shooter]
To throw or cast out, to emit. cf.[EJACULATE]
JAVA MAN
n [Ind. jawa, java; Snkrt. manu, man]
Java Man is the name given to a fossil hominid discovered in 1891 in Java.It is one of the earliest known specimens of Homo erectus comming from the Meso Pleistocene era. Its discoverer, Eugène Dubois, gave it the scientific name Pithecanthropus erectus, a name derived from Greek and Latin roots meaning upright ape-man.
JOHN INNES COMPOST
n [Mod.E. from John innes institute; L. compositum, something put together]
Loam-based compost devised by the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Norwich, and made to a standard formula.
JURASSIC
a [L. juria, forest; jura, forest montain; ic, forming adjective]
The Jurassic is a geologic period from about 200 to 146 million years ago. It is the middle period of the Mesozoic era between the Triassic and the Cretaceous periods. It is also known as the "Age of Reptiles". cf.[TRIASSIC, CRETACEOUS]
K
KENESIS
n [Gk. kenesis, movement]
Kinesisis a random movement or activity of a cell or an organism in response to a stimulus until it gets to a better environment. cf.[TAXIS]
KETONE
n [Ger. aketon, acetone]
In organic chemistry, a ketone is a molecule with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of atoms or groups of atoms. It features a carbonyl group (C=O) bonded between two other carbon atoms. Acetone is the simplest example of a ketone. When fat is broken down in the body, ketones are produced. Ketones are strong acids and are harmful to your body. Ketones in your urine may be a sign that you are developing diabetes as fats are usually only broken down when there is not enough insulin in your body.
KETONE BODIES
n [Ger. aketon, acetone; O.E. bodig, body]
Ketone bodies are water-soluble compounds formed by fatty acid oxidation by acetyl coenzyme A. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain especially at times of fasting. Acetone, Acetoacetic acid, and Beta-hydroxybutyric acid are all called ketone bodies.
KNOT GARDEN
n [A.S. cnotta, knot; O.Fr. jardin, yard]
Beds laid out in a formal often complex, pattern, formed from dwarf hedges or clipped herbs.
L
LABELLUM
n [L. labium, lip]
In orchids the lower petal which forms the lip of the flower.
LABIUM
n [L. labium, lip]
The bottom of a corolla in which the upper and lower parts can be clearly distinguished
LABRUM
n [L. labrum, lip]
The upper part of a corolla in which the upper and lower sides can be clearly distinguished
LACERATE
a [L. lacerare, to tear]
(of leaves) Irregularly cut .
LAMINA
n [L. lamina, plate]
The thin, flat blade of a leaf or petal.
LANCEOLATE
a [L. lanceola, little lance]
Narrow, as a lance, with tapering ends. Image /leafshapes/9?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=3
LATERAL
a [L. latus, side]
Arising from the side of the parent axis or attached to the side of another organ. Image /leafshapes/106?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=3
LATEX
n [L. latex, a liquid]
A milky and usually whitish fluid that is produced by the cells of various plants and is the source of, eg rubber, gutta percha, chicle and balata.
LATICIFEROUS
a [L. latex, liquid; ferre, to carry]
Producing a milky juice (latex).
LAYER PLANTING
a [M.E. layer, mason; Gk. phyton, plant]
A form of interplanting in which groups of plants flower in succession having been planted closely together.
LAYERING
a [M.E. layer, mason]
A method of propagation by which a shoot is induced to root while still attached to the parent plant. The basic form is self layering, which occurs naturally in some plants. Methods include: air layering (also known as Chinese layering or marcottage), French layering, mound layering (see MOUND LAYERING, SERPRNTINE LAYERING,SIMPLE LAYERING, STOOLING, TIP LAYERING, and TRENCH LAYERING.
LEACHING
n [O.E. leccan, causing to leak]
The loss from the topsoil of soluble nutrients by downward drainage.
LEADER
n [A.S. leadan to lead]
I ) The main, usually central, stem of a plant. 2) The terminal shoot of a main branch.
LEAF
n [A.S. leaf, leaf]
An aerial and lateral outgrowth from a stem which makes up the foliage of a plant. Its prime function is the manufacture of food by photosynthesis. It typically consists of a stalk (petiole) and a flattened blade (lamina).
LEAF BLADE
n [A.S. leaf, leaf; O.E. blaed, knife blade]
The area of the leaf (as differentiated from the stem of the leaf).
LEAF CUTTING
n [A.S. leaf, leaf]
A cutting taken from a detached leaf or part of a leaf. See Cutting.
LEAF MOULD
n [A.S. leaf, leaf; O.E. molde, pulverise]
Fibrous, flaky material derived from decomposed leaves, used as an ingredient in potting media and as a soil improver.
LEAF-BUD CUTTING
n [A.S. leaf, leaf]
A cutting consisting of a short section of stem and a single or double pair of buds or leaves. See also: Cutting.
LEAFLET
n [A.S. leaf,leaf]
Each separate lamina of a compound leaf.
LEGUME
n [L. legumen, pulse]
A one-celled, dehiscent.fruit splitting at maturity into two, belonging to the family Leguminosae.
LIANA
n [L. ligare, to bind]
A woody, climbing vine.
LIGHT
a [O.E. leoht, light]
1) The movable cover of a cold frame. 2) Of soil, with a high proportion of sand and little clay.
LIGULATE
a [L. ligula, little tongue]
Strap-shaped or tongue-shaped . Image /leafshapes/11?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=3
LIGULE
n [L. ligula, little tongue]
(of leaves) A scale-like membrane on the surface of a leaf (of flowers) the strapshaped corolla in some Compositae.
LIMB
n [A.S. lim, limb]
The upper, expanded portion of a calyx or corolla with fused parts cf. TUBE.
LIME
n [L. limus, mud]
Loosely, a number of compounds of calcium the amount of lime in soil determines whether it is alkaline, acid, or neutral.
LIMEN
n [L. limen, threshold]
The minimum level of a stimulus that is perceptible. A demarcation line like the strip of stone or wood at the entrance to a doorway.
LINE OUT
a [L. linea, line; O.E. ut, out]
To plant out young plants or insert cuttings in lines in a nursery bed or frame.
LINEAR
a [L. linea, line]
(of leaves) Elongated, and with parallel sides. Image leafshapes/10?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=3
LITHOPHYTE
n [Gk. lithos, stone; phyton, plant]
A plant naturally growing on rocks (or in very stony soil) and usually obtaining most of its nutrients and water from the atmosphere.
LOAM
n [M.E. lome, clay]
A term used for soil of medium texture, often easily worked, that contains more or less equal parts of sand, silt, and clay, and is usually rich in humus. If the proportion of one ingredient is high, the term may be qualified as silt-loam, clay-loam, or sandy loam.
LOBE
n [Gk. lobos, lobe]
(of leaves or perianths) A curved or rounded part. Image /leafshapes/31?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=3
LOBED
a [Gk. lobos, lobe]
(of leaves) With curved or rounded edges.
LOCULE
n [L. loculus, compartment]
The chamber or cavity of an ovary which contains the ovules, or of an anther which contains the pollen.
LOCULICIDAL
a [L. loculus, compartment; caedere, to cut]
Splitting open longitudinally along the dorsal suture (mid-rib) of each segment of the wall.
LORATE
a [L. lorum, thong]
(of leaves) The leaves are strap shaped like the leaves of Clivia. Image /leafshapes/102?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=3
LUTE
n [L. lutum, potter's clay]
A piece of equipment used for working (luting) top-dressings into lawns.
M
MAIDEN
a [O.E. maegden, maid or virgin]
A grafted tree in its first year. (See also WHIP.)
MAINCROP
n [O.N. meginn, strong; O.E. crop, pouch]
of vegetables). Those cultivars that produce crops throughout the main growing season, doing so over a longer period than either early or late cultivars.
MALE FLOWER
n [L. mas, male; flos, flower]
A flower containing functional stamens, but no carpels.
MARCOTTAGE
a [Fr. marcottage, layering]
1) propagation of trees by stripping ring of bark and covering with moss. 2) An alternative name for air layering see LAYERING.
MARGINAL
n [L. margo, edge]
Water plant. A plant that grows partially submerged in shallow water or in constantly moist soil at the edge of a pond or stream.
MARGINAL PLACENTATION
a [L. margo, edge; placenta, flat]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne along the fused margins of a single carpel, eg pea seeds in a pod.
MEDIUM
n [L. medium, middle]
1) A compost, growing mixture, or other material in which plants may be propagated or grown. 2) Applied to those soils that are intermediate in character between heavy and light. (See also LOAM.)
MEMBRANOUS
a [L. membrana, membrane]
Resembling a membrane thin, dry and semi-transparent.
MERICARP
n [Gk. meris, part; karpos, fruit]
A one-seeded portion of a fruit which splits up when the fruit is mature, eg the fruits of the Umbelliferae
MERISTEM
n [Gk. meristos, divide]
Plant tissue that is able to divide to produce new cells. Shoot or root tips contain meristematic tissue and may be used for micropropagation. See CAMBIUM
MESOCHILE
n [Gk. meso, middle. chellos,lip]
In orchids the lip which is divided into three parts known as the hypochile, mesochile and epichile. The elongated fluted middle part of the lip between the Hypochile and epichile. See HYPOCHILE, EPICHILE
MESOPHYTE
n [Gk. mesos,middle; phyton, plant]
A plant having moderate moisture requirements.
MICRONUTRIENTS
n [Gk. mikros, small;L. nutrire, to nurish]
Chemical elements essential to plants but needed only in very small quantities, also known as trace elements. (See also NUTRIENTS.)
MICROPROPAGATION
a [Gk. mikros, small; L. progagare, to propagate]
Propagation of plants by tissue culture.
MICROPYLE
n [Gk. mikros, small; pyle, gate]
The opening through the integuments of an ovule, through which the poIlen-tube grows after pollination.
MIDRIB
n [A.S. mid, middle; ribb, rib]
The primary, usually central vein of a leaf or leaflet.
MODULE
n [L. modulus, measured]
Applied to various types of container, particularly those used in multiples for sowing seed and pricking out seedlings.
MONO-
a [Gk. monos, single]
A prefix meaning single, one or once.
MONOCARPIC
n [Gk. monos, single; karpos, fruit]
Flowering and fruiting only once before dying such plants may take several years to reach flowering size.
MONOCHASIUM
n [Gk.monos, single; chasis, division]
A cymose inflorescence with each axis producing one branch in which there is a single terminal flower or a single branch bearing flower(s). Image /flowerinfos/20?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
MONOCLINOUS
a [Gk. monos, single; kline, couch]
A hermaphrodite having both sex organs in a single flower.
MONOCLINOUS
a [Gk. monos, single; kline, couch]
A hermaphrodite having both sex organs in a single flower.
MONOCOLPATE
a [Gk. monos, single; kalpos, fold]
(of pollen) Having a single colpus (an oblong-elliptic furrowed aperture).
MONOCOTYLEDON
n [Gk. monos, single; kotyledon, cup]
A flowering plant that has only one cotyledon or seed leaf in the seed it is also characterized by narrow, parallel-veined leaves, and parts of the flower in threes or multiples of three.
MONOECIOUS
n Gk. monos, single; oikos, house]
Bearing separate male and female reproductive organs on the same plant.
MONOGENERIC
a [Gk. monos, single; genus, race]
(of a family) Containing only one genus.
MONOPHYLLOUS
a [Gk. monos, single; phyllon, leaf]
One-leaved; composed of a single leaf; as, a monophyllous involucre or calyx
MONOPODIAL
a [Gk. monos, single; pous, foot]
Growing indefinitely from an apical or terminal bud on a stem. (Cf. SYMPODIAL.)
MONOTYPIC
n [Gk. monos, single; typos, type]
A genus or a family containing only a single species.
MOSS PEAT
n [O.E. mos, bog; L. peta, peat]
Moss peat is made from the partly rotted remains of the Bog Moss or Sphagnum plant. More than 14 species are found in Irish bogs. See PEAT.
MOUND LAYERING
a [L. mundus, world; ME. lay, lay]
Mound or stool layering is widely used to produce clonal rootstocks of apple and plum. Plants are cut back almost to ground level and allowed to sprout new shoots, soil (or a mixture of soil and sawdust) is mounded up around the bases of these shoots and the mound is built up as the shoots grow. Roots develop at the bases of these shoots. The following spring the rooted layers are cut off and transplanted into nursery rows for another season's growth. See LAYERING
MUCILAGE
n [L. mucus, mucus]
A slimy secretion, which swells when in contact with water.
MUCRONATE
a [L. mucro, sharp point; ferre, to bear]
(of leaves) The leaves end abruptly in a sharp point or spine. Image /leafshapes/61?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
MULCH
n [O.E. melse, soft]
A material applied in a layer to the soil surface to suppress weeds, conserve moisture, and maintain a preferably cool, even root temperature.
MULTIPLE CORDON
a [L. multus, many, chorda, cord]
An Espalier trained tree with multiple branches. See CORDON.
MULTISERIATE
a [L. multus, many, serere, to put in a row]
(of flower parts) Borne in any series or whorls.
MUTATION
n [L. mutare, to change]
An induced or spontaneous genetic change, often resulting in shoots with variegated foliage or flowers of a different colour from the parent plant. A mutation is also known as a sport. See SPORT, ROGUE.
MYCOPLASMA
n [Gk. mykes, fungus; plasma, form]
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria without a cell wall. They are the smallest known free-living life forms and are often unaffected by many common antibiotics, such as penicillin, which attacks the cell wall synthesis. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic and some like M. pneumoniae, causes atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders. In plants they are often found in the cell walls of the phloem cells. In some respects they are intermediate between bacteria and viruses. cf.[YELLOWS]
MYCORRHIZA
n [Gk. mykes, fungus; rhiza, root]
The symbiotic association of roots of some seed plants with fungi.
N
NAKED
a [A.S. nacod, naked]
(of flowers) Lacking a perianth.
NATURALISE
v [L. natura, nature]
To establish and grow as if in the wild.
NECK
a [O.E. hnecca, back of neck]
The junction between the stem and root. See COLLAR.
NECTAR
n [Gk. nektar, nectar]
Sugary liquid secreted from a nectary often attractive to pollinating insects.
NECTARY
n [Gk. nektar, nectar]
Glandular tissue usually found in the flower, but sometimes found on the leaves or stems, that secretes nectar.
NEUTRAL
a [L. neuter, neither]
(of soil or substances). With a pH value of 7, i.e. neither acid nor alkaline.
NODAL
a [L. nodus, knob]
Pertaining to a node or nodes. See CUTTING.
NODAL CUTTING
n [L. nodus, knob; unknown probably Gmc.]
one trimmed at the base just below a node. See CUTTING
NODE
a [L. nodus, knob]
The point on a stem from which one or more leaves, shoots, branches, or flowers arise.
NON-REMONTANT
a [L. non, not; Fr. remont, comming up again]
Flowering or fruiting only once in a single flush. (Cf. REMONTANT.)
NUCELLUS
n [L. dim of nux, nut]
The central nutritive tissue of the ovule. containing the embryo sac and surrounded by, in angiosperms, two integument.
NUMEROUS
a [L. numerus, a number]
(of floral parts) Usually meaning more than ten cf. INDEFINATE.
NURSERY BED
n [L. nutricius, a person that nurishes; O.E. bedde, bed]
An area used for germinating seeds or growing on young plants before planting them out in their permanent positions.
NUT
n [L. nux, nut]
A one-seeded, indehiscent fi-uit with a tough or woody coat, for example an acorn. Less specifically, all fruits and seeds with woody or leathery coats.
NUTRIENT MINERALS
n [L. nutrire, to nurish;minera, ore]
(mineral ions) used to develop protein and other compounds required for growth
O
OBCORDATE
a [L. ob, against; cor, heart]
(of leaves) The leaves have the point of attachment at the apex of the heart shape. Image /leafshapes/62?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBLANCEOLATE
a [L. ob, reversely; lancea, spear]
(of leaves) Lance-shaped but broadest above the middle and tapering toward the base. Image /leafshapes/12?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBLIGATE
a [L. obligatus, bound]
Parasite unable to grow on its own entirely dependent on a host for nutrition.
OBLIQUE
a [L. obliquus, slanting]
(of leaves) The leaf bases are slanted about the midrib and are therefore uneven. Image /leafshapes/76?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBLONG
a [L. oblongus, longish]
(of leaves) Having a somewhat elongated form with approximately parallel sides. A square, circular, rectangle, ellipse, or spherical form by being elongated in one direction. Image /leafshapes/13?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBOVATE
a [L. ob, against; ovum, egg]
Egg-shaped with the smaller, pointed end attached to the stem. Image /leafshapes/14?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OBTUSE
a [L. obtusus, blunt]
(of leaves) The leaf tip is blunted with an angle greater then 90 degrees. Image /leafshapes/64?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OCHREA
a, [L.ocrea, greave]
A cup-shaped structure formed by the joining of stipules or leaf bases around a stem; A SHEATH. q.v. OCREA
OCREA
n [L. ocrea, greave]
A cup-shaped structure formed by the joining of stipules or leaf bases around a stem; A SHEATH. q.v. OCHREA
OEDEMA
n [Gk. oidema, swelling]
A swelling of tissues, usually caused by excess fluid in the cavities between cells or tissues of the body. see [EDEMA]
OFFSET
n [O.E. off, var of of; L secta, sect]
A short prostrate branch that takes root at the apex and develops a new individual. See OFFSHOOT.
OFFSET
n [O.E. of, combined with off, relationship with away from; O.Fr. sette, from]]
Young plant that arises by natural vegetative reproduction, usually at the base of the parent plant in bulbs. offsets are initially formed within the bulb inner tunic, but later separate out. Also known as offshoots. See CORMLET.
OFFSHOOT
n [O.E. off, var of of; A.S. sceotan, to dart]
A lateral shoot from a main stem. See OFFSET
OPEN
a [O.E. openian, open]
appl. aestivatian where perianth leaves leaves do not meet at the edges as in Cruciferae or plant community which do not completly colonize the ground, but leaves bare areas.
OPEN-POLLINATION
a [O.E. openian, open; L. plooen, fine flower]
Natural polination= (See also POLLINATION)
OPPOSITE
a [L. opponere, to oppose]
Term describing two leaves or other plant organs on opposite sides of a stem or other axis. (Cf ALTERNATE) Image /leafshapes/37?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
ORBICULAR
a [L. orbis, orb]
More or less circular with petiole attached to the center. Image /leafshapes/15?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
ORGANIC
a [Gk. organon, instrument]
1) Chemically, referring to compounds containing carbon from decomposed p1ant or animal organisms. 2) Loosely applied to mulches, composts, or similar materials derived from plant or animal materials. 3) Also applied to crop production and gardening without the use of synthetic or non-organic materials.
ORTHOTROPOUS
a [Gk. orthos, straight; thrope, turn]
(of ovules) Borne on a straight stalk (funicle) not bent over.
OVAL
a [L. ovum, egg]
(of leaves) An elliptical or egg-shaped form or figure. Image /leafshapes/16?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OVARY
n [L. ovarium, ovary]
The lower part of the female reproduction organ (the pistil) of the flower, containing one or more ovules that may develop into a fruit after fertilization. (See also Carpel) Image /flowerinfos/11?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OVATE
a [L. ovum, egg]
Egg-shaped with the wider, rounded end attached to the stem. Image /leafshapes/103?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=4
OVOID
a [L. ovum, egg; Gk. eidos, form]
(of leaves) Egg-shaped.
OVULE
n [L. ovum, egg]
The part of the ovary that develops into the seed after pollination and fertilization.
OVUM
n [L. ovum, egg]
Plural [OVA]. The reproductive female gamete, organ or body of animals. alt[EGG]
OXYGENATOR
n [Fr. oxygine, acidyfing constituent]
Submerged aquatic plants that releases oxygen into the water.
OXYPHILOUS
a [Gk. oxys, sharp; philein, to love]
A plant tolerating only acid soils. Alt BASIFUGE, CALCIFUGE, See CALICOLE, SILICOLE
OXYPHYTE
n [Gk. oxys, sharp, phytum, plant]
A plant thriving on acid soils. Alt.CALCIFUGE, OXYTOPHYTE. See, CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE
OXYTOPHYTE
n [Gk. oxys, sharp, phytum, plant]
A plant thriving on acid soils. Alt.CALCIFUGE, OXYTOPHYTE. See, CALCIPETE, CALCIPHILE, CALCIPHYTE, GYPSOPHYTE
P
PACKS
n [Ger. pak, pack]
Compartmented trays in which individual seed or seedlings are grown.
PALMATE
a [L. palma, palm]
(of leaves) With more than three segments or leaflets arising from a single point, as in the fingers of a hand Image /leafshapes/46?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PALMATELY CLEFT
a [L. palma, palm; A.S. cleofan, to cut]
Incompletely separated lobes that start from the midrib Image /leafshapes/111?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PALMATELY LOBED
a [L. palma, palm; Gk. lobos, lobe]
Divided lobes that are not completely separated. If the lobes start from one point, the leaf is digitate or palmately lobed, like a maple leaf. If the lobes start from the midrib, the leaf is palmately cleft (see PALMATELY CLEFT). Image /leafshapes/111?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PAN
n [Gk. pan, all]
1) A shallow earthenware or plastic pot that is much wider than it is deep. 2) A layer of soil that is impermeable to water or oxygen and impedes root growth and drainage. Some pans (hardpans) occur naturally on clay or iron-rich soils. Soil capping (see CAPPING) any heavy rain or excess watering, or continoul use of cultivation machinery are also known as pans or hardpans.
PANICLE
n [L. panicula, tuft]
A multiple branched inflorescence. The grape is actually a grape panicle. Loosely describing a branching inflorescences. Image /flowerinfos/3?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PANICULATE
a [L. panicula, tuft]
Arranged in a panicle.
PARALLEL
a [Gk. para, beside; allelos, one another]
(of leaves) The venation run parallel along the length of the leaf as in most monocotlydon plants. Image /leafshapes/50?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PARASITE
n [Gk. parasitos, from para, beside, sitos, food]
A plant that obtains its food from another living plant to which it is attached.
PARASTAMEN
n [Gk. para, beside; stemon, thread]
A rudementary modified stamen, usually sterile. alt. STAMINODE.
PARENCHYMA
n [Gk. para, beside; enchyma, infusion]
Tissue made up of thin-walled living photosynthetic or storage cells which is capable of division even when mature.
PARIETAL PLACENTATION
a [L. partialis, partial; placenta, flat cake]
A type of placentation in which the ovules are borne on placentas on the inner surface of the outer wall of the ovary.
PARIPINNATE
a [L. par, equal; pinna wing]
A pinnate leaf with all leaflets in pairs cf. IMPARIPINNATE.
PARTERRE
n [Fr. par terre, on the ground]
A level area containing ornamental beds often with low growing pants and enclosed by dwarf hedges.(Cf. KNOT-GARDEN).
PARTHENOCARPIC
n [Gk. parthenos, virgin, genisis, descent]
The production of fruit without fertilization having taken place.
PATHOGENS
n [Gk. pathos, suffering; genes, producing]
Micro-organisms that cause disease.
PATHOVAR (PVAR .)
n [Gk. pathos, suffering; L. variare, to change]
A subdivision of several bacterial species.
PEAT
n [M.E. pete, peat]
Partially decayed humus rich vegetation formed on the surface of waterlogged soils Moss or Sphagnum peat is largely derived from partially decayed sphagnum moss and is used in potting composts Sedge peat is derived from sedges, mosses and heathers: it is coarser than moss peat, and is less suitable for potting composts.
PEAT BLOCKS
n [M.E. pete, peat; O.Fr. blok, block]
Blocks of peat cut from naturally occurring peat deposits.
PEAT SUBSTITUTE
n [M.E. pete, peat; L. substitut, to put in place of]
A term applied to a number of different organic materials such as coconut fibre-used in place peat for potting composts and soil improvers.
PECTINATE
a [L. pecten, comb]
(of leaves) The leaves resembles the tooth of a comb like some conifers. Image /leafshapes/95?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PEDATE
a [L.pes, foot]
(of leaves) A palmately divided compound leaf, having three main divisions, and having the outer division one or more times. There may be a free central leaflet. Pedicel The stalk of a single flower.
PEDICEL
n [L. pediculus, small foot]
A short stalk below the calyx. Image /flowerinfos/14?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PEDUNCLE
n [L.L. pedunulus, small foot]
The stalk of a flower. Image /flowerinfos/3?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PELTATE
n [Gk. pelte, shield]
A leaf with the stalk attached beneath leaf bladee instead of from its base on the margin of the leaf, as is the case with the nasturtium. Image /leafshapes/4?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PENDULOUS
a [L. pendere, to hang]
Hanging down.
PERENNATING
a [L. per, through; annus, year]
Living over from season to season.
PERENNIAL
a [L. per, through; annus, year]
A plant that persists for more than two years and normally flowers annually.
PERFECT FLOWER
a [L. perfectus, finished; flos, flower]
A flower with functional male and female organs.
PERFOLIATE
a [L. per, through; folium, leaf]
(of leaves) The basal lobes of the leaves are joined so that the stem appears to go straight through the leaf. Image /leafshapes/83?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PERIANTH
n [Gk. peri, around; anthos, flower]
The outer whorl of floral leaves of a flower; basically the calyx and the corolla, particularly when they are very similar in form, as in many bulb flowers. The floral envelope whose segments are usually divisible into an outer whorl (calyx) of sepals, and an inner whorl (corolla) of petals. The segments of either or both whorls may fuse to form a tube. Image /flowerinfos/29?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PERIANTH SEGMENT
n [Gk. peri, aroung; anthos, flower; segmentum, piece]
One portion of a perianth, usually resembling a petal and sometimes known as a tepal.
PERICARP
a [Gk. peri, around; karpos, fruit]
The wall of a fruit that encloses the seeds and which develops from the ovary wall.
PERIGYNOUS
a [Gk. peri, around; gyne, female]
(of flowers) Having the stamens, corolla and calyx inserted around the ovary, their bases often forming a disk.
PERISPERM
n [Gk. peri, around; sperm, seed]
The nutritive storage tissue in some seeds, derived from the nucellus.
PERITHECIUM
n [Gk. peri, around; theke, case]
A small flask-shaped fruiting body of ascomycetous fungi containing ascospores.
PERLITE
n [Fr. perle, pearle]
Small granules of expanded, volcanic minerals added to growing media to improve aeration.
PERPETUAL
a [L. perpetuus, continuing throughout]
Of plants that bloom more 'or less continuously throughout the growing season or over long periods of time.
PERSISTENT
a [L. persistere, to persevere]
Remaining attached, not falling off.
PESTICIDE
n [L. pestis, plague; cidium, kill]
A chemical substance, usually manufactured, that is used to kill pests including insects (insecticide), mites (acaricide), and nematodes (nematicide).
PETAL
n [Gk. petalon, leaf]
One of the modified leaves of the corolla of a flower, often strikingly colored (Cf. Tepal.) Image /flowerinfos/8?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PETALOID
a [Gk. petalon, leaf]
Petal-like.
PETIOLATE
a [L. petiolus, small foot]
(of leaves) The basal lobes of the leaves are joined so that the stem appears to go straight through the leaf. Image /leafshapes/84?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PETIOLE
n [L. petiolus, small foot]
The main stem of a leaf.
pH
n [Ger. potenz, power; H for hydrogen]
A measure of alkalinity or acidity, used horticulturally to refer to soils. The scale measures from 1 to 14 pH 7 is neutral, above 7 is alkaline, and )below 7 acid. (See also ACID, ALKALINE and NEUTRAL.)
PHIALIDE
n [Gk. phialis, a broad, flat vessel]
A flask-shaped projection from the mycelium of certain fungi from which conidispores are produced in a chain like fashion.
PHLOEM
n [Gk. phloios, inner bark]
That part of the tissue of a plant which is concerned with conducting food material. In woody stems it is the innermost layer of the bark cf. XYLEM.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
n [Gk. phos, light, synthesis, putting together]
The production of organic compounds required for growth in plants by a complex process )involving chlorophyll, light energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
PHYLLARY
n [Gk. phyllon, leaf]
A bract of the involucre of a compositae. See BRACT.
PHYLLODE
n [Gk. phyllon, leaf; edios, form]
A flattened leaf stalk (petiole) which has assumed the form and function of a leaf blade.
PICOTEE
n [Fr. picote, mark with points]
A term describing petals with narrow margin of a contrasting colour.
PINCHING OUT
v [O.Fr. pincier, to pinch; O.E. ut, out]
The removal of the wing tip of a plant (by finger and thumb) to induce the production of -shoots or the formation of flowers. Also known as "stopping".
PINNA
n [L. pinna, feather]
The part of a pinnately divided leaf that branches off the midrib it can be a pinnule or a lateral shoot of the first order Image /leafshapes/109?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATE
a [L. pinnatus, feathered]
(of leaves) Compound, with leaflets in pairs on opposite sides of the midrib cf imparipinnate and paripinnate. Image /leafshapes/51?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATELY DIVIDED
a [L. pinna, feather; dividere, to divide]
Divided leaves with a stem-like midrib and lateral ribs or small leaflets arranged opposite each other
PINNATELY LOBED
a [L. pinna, feather; dividere, to divide;Gk. lobos, lobe]
The leaves are lobed with three or more lobes arranged like a pinnate leaf, but with the lobing not reaching the midrib. Image /leafshapes/33?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATIFID
a [L. pinna, feather; findere, to cleave]
(of leaves) The leaves are split or lobed to the midrib in a feather-like manner. Image /leafshapes/91?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PINNATISECT
a [L. pinna, feathered; secta, sect]
(of leaves) pinnately divided, but not as far as the midrib. Image /leafshapes/34?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PISTIL
n [L. pistillum, pestle]
The female reproductive organ of the flower that starts from the ovary and continues through to the stigma. See CARPEL. Image /flowerinfos/16?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
PISTILLATE
a [L. pistillum, pestle]
A flower that has only female organs.
PISTILLODE
n [L. pistillum, pestle; Gk. ediod, form]
A sterile, often reduced pistil.
PITH
n [A.S. pitha, pith]
(of stems). The soft plant tissue in the central part of a stem.
PLACENTA
n [L. placenta, flat cake]
Part of the ovary wall to which the ovules are attached.
PLACENTATION
a [L. placenta, flat cake]
The arrangement and distribution of the ovule-bearing placentas within the ovary: cf axile, basal, free central, marginal and parietal.
PLASMID
n [Gk. plasma, form]
A nucleic acid element, such as mitochondria, which is capable of reproduction and found in the cytoplasm of bacteria cells.
PLEACHING
a [O.Fr. plassier, entwined]
A technique whereby branches from a row of trees are woven together and trained to form a wall or canopy of foliage.
PLEROTIC
a [Gk. pleroun, to fill]
Completely filling a space. Usually applied to oospores filling the oogonium. cf. APLEROTIC
PLEURIDS
n [Gk. pleura, side. idios, distinct]
In orchids a pair of water glands known as pleurids which are located usually on the column near where the claw connects to the ovary. These drip water into the bucket of the lip.
PLICATE
a[L. plicare, to fold]
Of leaves folded multiple time lengthwise into parallel ridges, like a fan; corrugated like the pleats of cloth. Image leafshapes/113?ordr=1&telephone=5
PLUMOSE
a [L. pluma, feather]
Feather like.
PLUMULE
n [L. plumula, small feather]
The rudimentary shoot in an embryo. See HYPOGEAL..
PLUNGE
v [L. plumbum, lead plummet]
To sink a pot up to its rim bed of ashes, peat, sand, or to protect the roots of the plant or plants in the pot from extremes of temperature.
POD
n [M.E. pod, bag]
An ill-defined term generally applied to any dry, dehiscent fruit it is particularly used for peas and beans.
POLLARDING
v [M.E. pol, head; Ger. hard, hard]
The regular pruning back of the main branches of a tree to the to the main stem or trunk, or to a short branch framework, usually to a height bout 2m (6ft). (Cf. COPPICING.)
POLLEN
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
The male reproductive cells of a plant, formed in the anther. Image /flowerinfos/9?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
POLLEN SAC
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
The chamber (loculus) in an anther where the pollen is formed. Image /flowerinfos/37?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
POLLINATION
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
The transfer of pollen from anthers to stigmas. (See also CROSS-POLLINATION, OPEN-POLLINATION and SELF-POLLINATION.)
POLLINATOR
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
1) The agent or means by which pollination is carried out (e.g. insects, wind). 2) Used in fruit growing to describe a cultivar required to ensure fruit set on another self- or partially self-sterile cultivar.
POLLINIUM
n [L. pollen, fine flour]
A mass of pollen grains produced by one anther-lobe, cohering together and transported as a single unit during pollination, as in the orchids.
POLYEMBRYONIC
a [Gk. polys, many; embryon, egg]
Containing more than one embryo in an ovule or seed.
POLYGAMODIOECIOUS
a [Gk. polys, nany; gamos, marriage]
Having male and bisexual flowers on one individual plant and female and bisexual flowers on another.
POLYGAMOUS
n [Gk. polys, many; gamos, marriage]
Having separate male, female and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
POLYPETALOUS
n [Gk. polys, maany, petalon, petals]
With petals free from each other.
POME FRUIT
n [L. pommum, apple; fructus, fruit]
A firm, fleshy fi-uit formed by the fusion of the ovary and the hypanthium (the fused base of calyx and corolla) for example an apple or pear.
POMPON
a [Fr. pompon, wollen ball]
Usually small, almost globular flowerheads made up of numerous florets.
PORE
n [Gk. poros, passage]
A small hole.
POTTING COMPOST
n [O.E. pott, container; L. compositer, someting put together]
(also potting mix or potting medium). A mixture of loam, peat substitute (or peat), sand, and nutrients in varying proportions Soilless composts contain no loam and mainly comprise peat with nutrients added.
POTTING ON
v [O.Fr. pot, storage onntainer; O.E. on, on]
Transferring a plant from one pot to a larger one.
POTTING UP
v [O.Fr. pot, storage container; O.E. uppe, up]
Transferring seedlings into individual pots of compost.
PRICKING OUT
v [O.E. pricca, prick; O.E. utian, out]
The transferring of young seedlings from where they have germinated in beds or containers to positions where they have room to grow on.
PROPAGATION
n [L. propagare, to propagate]
The increase of plants by seed (usually sexual) or vegetative (asexual) means.
PROPAGATOR
n [L. propagare, to propagate]
A structure that provides a humid atmosphere for raising seedlings, rooting cuttings, or other plants being propagated.
PROTANDROUS
a [Gk. protos, first; aner, male]
(of flowers) The maturing of stamens and the consequent release of their pollen before the stigmas of the same flower become receptive.
PROTOGYNOUS
a [Gk. Protos, first; gyne, woman]
(of flowers) The receptiveness of the stigmas before the stamens of the same flower mature and release their pollen.
PROXIMAL END
a [L. proximus, next; O.E. ende, end]
(of cuttings). The end that was originally nearest to the crown of the parent plant. (Cf DISTAL END.)
PRUNING
v [O.Fr. prigner, prune]
Trim by cutting away dead or unwanted or overgrown parts of a tree, shrub or plant.
PSEUDO-WHORLED
a [Gk. pseudos, falsehood; O.E. wharve, whorl of a spindle]
(of leaves) Arising close together and so appearing to arise at the same level, although not in fact doing so.
PSEUDOBULB
a [Gk. pseudos, falsehood; L. bulbus, globular root]
The thickened, bulb-like stem of a sympodial orchid arising from a (sometimes very short) rhizome. Quartered rosette. A rosetted flower with the petals arranged in four, more or less equal, sections.
PSEUDOCOPULATION
v [Gk. pseudos, falsehood; L. copula, bond]
The attempted copulation by male insect visitors with a part of a flower which resembles the female of the insect species, as in the orchids.
PUBESCENT
n [L. pubescere, to become mature]
Covered in soft, short hairs.
PUNCTATE
a [L. punctum, point]
Shallowly pitted or dotted, often with glands.
Q
QUIESCENCE
n [L. quiescere, to become still]
A temporary state of no growth of an organism due to unfavorable conditions. cf. [DIAPAUSE]
QUINATE
a [L. quini, five each]
Five leaflets growing from one point. alt[PALMATE] Image leafshapes/46?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
QUININE
n [Sp. quina, cinchona bark]
An Alkaloid produced in the bark of the cinchona tree and used as an anti-malarial drug and as a febrifuge(a fever reducer)
R
RACEME
n [L. racemus, bunch]
An indeterminate, unbranched inflorescence with a main stem and usually many stalked flowers.The apical growing point continues to be active so there is usually no terminal flower and the youngest branches or flowers are nearest the apex. This mode of growth is known as monopodial. Image /flowerinfos/2?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RACEMOSE
a [L. racemus, bunch]
Arranged like a raceme in general any inflorescence capable of indefinite prolongation, having lateral and axillary flowers.
RACHIS
n [Gk. rhachis, spine]
The main stalk or axis of a flower. The stalk of a pinnately compound leaf.
RADICLE
n [L. radix, root]
The rudimentary root in an embryo. Leaves arising from the base of a stem or from a rhizome basal.
RAIN SHADOW
n [O.E. regn, rain; scead, shield]
An area of ground next to a wall or fence that is sheltered from prevailing winds and therefore receives less rain than open ground.
RAMBLER
n [M.Du. rammelen, to wander]
A trailing climber.
RAPHE
n [Gk. raphe, seam]
A ridge or tissue visible on the testa of seeds developed from ovules which are bent over through 180 degrees (anatropous). It results from the fusion of the stalk (funicle) with the rest of the bent-over ovules.
RAY
n [L. radius, ray]
(of wood) Radial strands of living cells concerned with the transport of water and food.
RAY FLOWER
n [L. radius, ray; flos, flower]
(or floret). Small flower with a tubular corolla, as borne in the outermost ring of a Compositae flowerhead.
RECEPTACLE
n [L. recipere, to recieve]
Flat, concave or convex part of the stem from which all parts of a flower arise. The floral axis.
RECURVED
a [L. recurvus, bent back]
Applied to petals of flowers and florets that curve backwards.
REFLEXED
a [L. reflectere, to turn back]
Applied to petals of flowers and florets that bend sharply backwards at an angle of more than 90?. They are sometimes called fully reflexed. Also loosely applied to any flower in which the petals or perianth segments are recurved.
REGULAR
a [L. regula, rule]
(of flowers) Radially symmetrical, with more than one plane of symmetry actinomorphic.
REMONTANT
a [Fr. remont, comming up again]
Of a plant that flowers more than once during the growing season (often applied to roses and strawberries). (Cf NON-REMONTANT.)
RENEWAL PRUNING
v [L. re, again; O.E. niwe, new; O.Fr. prigner, prune]
A system in which the laterals are constantly cut back to be replaced by young laterals stimulated by pruning.
RENIFORM
a [L. ren, kidney; forma, shape]
(of leaves) The leaves are in the shape of a kidney or bean. Image /leafshapes/105?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RESPIRATION
n [L. respiratio, breathing]
The release of energy from complex organic molecules as a result of chemical changes.
RETICULATE
a [L. reticulatus, latticed]
Marked with a network pattern, usually of veins.
RETICULATE VENATION
a [L. reticulatus, latticed; vena, vein]
Lateral veins that branch off the midrib like the feathers of a bird. Most leaves show such venation
RETUSE
a [L. retusus, blunted]
(of leaves) The leaf tip s are blunted and obtuse with a small notch in the middle. Image /leafshapes/65?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
REVERT
v [L. reversio, turning back]
To return to an original state, for example when a variegated plant produces a plain green leaf.
RHACHIS
n [Gk. rachis, spine]
The major axis of an inflorescence.
RHIPIDIUM
n [Gk. rhipis, fan; idion, dim]
A cymose inflorescence with branches alternating from one side of the vertical axis to the other normally flattened in one plane and fanshaped. Image /flowerinfos/23?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RHIZOME
n [Gk. rhizoma, root]
A specialized, usually horizontally creeping, swollen or slender, underground stem that acts as a storage organ and produces aerial shoots at its apex and along its length.
RHOMBOIDAL
a [Gk. rhombus,rhombus, edios, form]
The leaves are in the shape of a rhombus or a skewed parrellelogram. Image /leafshapes/70?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
RIB
n [A.S. ribb, rib]
Radiating branch on a fantrained tree.
RIND
n [A.S. rindle, bark]
The outer bark of a shrub or tree outside the cambium layer.
RIPEWOOD CUTTING
n [Gmc. in origin]
A cutting taken from ripened wood, usually of evergreens, during the growing season. See also: Cutting.
ROGUE
n [L. rogare, beg]
A somatic mutation. q.v. SPORT.
ROOT
n [A.S. wyrt, root]
The part of a plant, normally underground, that anchors it and through which water and nutrients are absorbed. (See also AERIAL ROOT.)
ROOT BALL
n [A.S. wyrt, root; O.N. bollr, ball]
The roots and accompanying soil or compost visible when a plant is removed from a container or lifted from the open ground.
ROOT CUTTING
n [A.S. wyrt, root]
A cutting taken from part of a semi-mature root. See also: Cutting.
ROOT RUN
n [A.S. wyrt, root; O.E. rinnan, run]
The area of soil into which a plant's roots may extend.
ROOTING
n [A.S. wyrt, root]
The production of roots, usually from cuttings.
ROOTING HORMONE
n [A.S. wyrt, root; Gk. hormaein, to excite]
A chemical compound synthesized in powder or liquid form and used at low concentrations to encourage root production.
ROOTSTOCK
n [A.S. wyrt, root; stocc, post]
A plant used to provide the root system for a grafted plant.
ROSE
n [L. rosa, rose]
(of a watering can). A perforated nozzle that diffuses and regulates the flow of water.
ROSETTE
n [L. rosa, rose]
1) A cluster of leaves radiating from approximately the same point, often borne at ground level at the base of a very short stem. 2) A more or less circular arrangement of petals. Image /leafshapes/99?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
ROSTELLUM
n [L. demunitive of rostrum]
In many orchids, a part of one of the three stigma lobes forms the rostellum. It is a flap of tissue that projects down in front of the anther separating the stigma and the anther. As the visiting insect backs out of the flower, it brushes the rostellum, which is covered with sticky stigmatic substance. The pollinia are then picked up from the anther and adhere to the body of the insect. The insect then flies to another flower which is then pollinated.
ROTATE
n [L. rota, wheel]
(of corollas) Wheel-shaped with the petals or lobes spreading out from the axis of a flower.
ROTATION
n [L. rota, wheel]
Changinging the crops grown in an area every season to prevent the build up of pests and deseases. See CROP ROTATION.
ROUNDED
a [L. rotundus, rotund]
Regularly curved, as in a circle.
RUMINATE
n [L. ruminatio, to chew the cud]
(of endosperm in seeds) Irregularly grooved and ridged having a chewed appearance.
RUNNER
n [A.S. rinnan, to run]
A horizontally spreading, usually slender, stem that runs above ground and roots at the nodes to form new plants. Often confused with stolon.
S
SADDLE GRAFTING
v [O.E. sadol, saddle; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
A mode of grafting in which a deep cleft is made in the end of the scion by two sloping cuts, and the end of the stock is made wedge-shaped to fit the cleft in the scion, which is placed upon it saddlewise. See GRAFTING.
SAGITTATE
a [L. sagitta, arrow]
of leaves) Shaped like an arrow head with two backward-directed barbs. Image /leafshapes/18?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SAMARA
n [L. samara, seed of elm]
A dry fruit that does not split open and has part of the fruit wall extended to form a flattened membrane or wing.
SAP
n [O.E. saep, sap]
The juice of a plant contained in the cells and vascular tissue. Sapling. A young tree a seedling or any young tree before the wood hardens.
SAPONINS
n [L. sapo, soap]
A toxic, soap-like group of compounds which is present in many plants.
SAPROPHYTE
n [Gk. sapros, rotten; phyton, plant]
A plant that cannot live on its own, but which needs decaying organic material as a source of nutrition.
SCALE
n [A.S. sceala, shell]
A small, often membranous, reduced leaf frequently found covering buds and bulbs.
SCALE-LIKE
a [A.S. sceala, shell; O.N. likr, like]]
Having leaves that are flattened and closely attached to the stem like the Juniperus chinensis and other connifer trees. Image /leafshapes/30?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SCALED
a [A.S. scaela, husk]
Covered by scale leaves.
SCANDENT
a [L. scandere, to climb]
Ascending or loosely climbing. (See also CLIMBER.)
SCAPE
a [Gk. scapos, stalk]
A leafless flower-stalk.
SCARIFICATION
n [Gk. skariphasthai, scratch an outline]
1) Abrasion or chemical treatment of a seed coat in order to speed up water intake and induce germination. 2) Removing moss and thatch from a lawn using a scarifier or rake.
SCARIOUS
a [Fr. scarieux, mambranous]
Dry and membranous, with a dried-up appearance.
SCHIZOCARP
n [Gk. schizein, to cleave; karpos, fruit]
A fruit derived from a simple or compound ovary in which the locules separate at maturity to form single-seeded units.
SCHIZOMYCETES
n [Gk. schizein, to cleave; mykes, fungus]
Old alternative name for some bacteria when they are classified as plants. Alt.[SCHIZOMYCOPHYTA]
SCHIZOMYCOPHYTA
n [Gk. schizein, to cleave; phtyon, plant]
Old alternative name for some bacteria when they are grouped in the phyla Schizophyta]
SCION
n [fr. scion, shoot]
A shoot or bud cut from one plant to graft onto a rootstock (stock) of another.
SCLERENCHYMA
n [Gk. skleros, hard; engchyma, infusion]
Tissue with thickened cell walls, often woody (lignified), and which give mechanical strength and support.
SCORPIOID
a [Gk.skorpios, scorpion; edios, form]
(of cymose inflorescences) A monochasial, cymose inflorescence with branches alternating from one side of the vertical axis to the other normally curved to one side like a scorpion's tail. q.v. CINCINNUS. Image /flowerinfos/39?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SCRAMBLER
n [E. scamble, stumble; cramble, crawl]
A plant with a spreading, creeping habit usually anchored with the help of hooks, thorns or tendrils.
SCREE
n [O.N. skritha, landslip]
A slope comprising rock fragments formed by the weathering of rock faces: simulated in gardens as scree beds, in which high-altitude alpines that need excellent drainage may be grown.
SEDGE PEAT
n [O.E. secg, sedge; L. peta, peat]
bogs where peat has accumulated chiefly from decaying sedges, rushes and other aquatic emergent species in low lying lakes and swamps. See PEAT.
SEED
n [A.S. saed, seed]
The ripened fertilized ovule containing a dormant embryo capable of developing into an adult plant.
SEED DORMANCY
n [A.S. saed, deed; L. dormire, to sleep]
Seed dormancy in nature usually exists to delay germination until favorable environmental conditions are present for seed germination, growth and development. See DORMANCY.
SEED LEAF
n [A.S. Saed, seed; leaf, leaf]
A leaf of the embryo of a seed plant, which upon germination either remains in the seed or emerges, enlarges, and becomes green. See COTYLEDON.
SEEDHEAD
n [A.S. saed, seed; O.E. heafod, dead]
Any fruit that contains ripe seeds.
SEEDLING
n [A.S. seaed, seed]
A young plant that has developed from a seed.
SELECTION
n [L. seligere, choose]
A plant selected for particular characteristics and usually propagated to retain the same characteristics.
SELF LAYERING
n [O.E. self, self; layer, mason]
Where branches of plants touch the ground and root themselves to provide a new tree or plant. See LAYERING.
SELF-CLINGING CLIMBER
n [O.E. self, self; clingan, stick together; climban, climb]
there are only 5 self-clinging climbers; ivy, climbing hydrangea, Euonymus, the Trumpet Creeper and the Virginia Creeper. These plants will only have to be pointed into the right direction once. See CLIMBER.
SELF-FERTILE
a [O.E. self, self; L. fertilis, fertile]
Of a plant that produces viable seed when fertilized with its own pollen. (See also FERTILIZATION, POLLINATION, SELF-POLLINATION, and SELF-STERILE.)
SELF-INCOMPATIBLE
a [O.E. self, self; L. in, not; compatibilis, compatable]
A plant that is incapable of self-fertilization. See SELF-STERILE.
SELF-POLLINATION
v [O.E. of Gmc, origin; L. pollen, fine flour]
The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma of the same flower, or alternatively to another flower on the same plant. Cf. CROSS-POLLINATION, CROSS-FERTILIZATION, OPEN-POLLINATION, POLLINATION.
SELF-SEED
A [O.E. self, self; saed, seed]
To shed fertile seeds that produce seedlings around the parent plant.
SELF-STERILE
n [O.E. self, self; L. sterilis, barren]
A plant unable to produce viable seed after self-fertilization, and requiring a different pollinator in order for fertilization to occur. Also known as "self-incompatible" - incapable of self-fertilization.
SEMI-DECIDUOUS
a [L. semi, half; decidere, to fall down]
Describes a plant that retains most or some of its foliage throughout the year. See DECIDUOUS.
SEMI-DETERMINATE
a [L. semi, half; determinare, to limit]
Used of tall or cordon tomatoes that will only grow to 1-1.2m (3-4ft) long. (Cf. DETERNINATE, INTERDETERMINATE)
SEMI-DOUBLE
a [L. semi,half; duplus, two]
Having the outermost stamens converted into petals, while the inner ones remain perfect See FLOWER
SEMI-EVERGREEN
a [L. semi, half; O.E. aefre, ever; grenian, green]
A plant which is able to keep its leaves all year round under certain conditions but otherwise, would lose them. See Evergreen. Semi-ripe cutting. See CUTTING.
SEMI-PARASITE
n [L. semi, half; Gk. para, beside; sitos, food]
A plant which, although able to grow independently, is much more vigorous if it establishes a parasitic relationship on another plant.
SEMI-RIPE CUTTING
n [L. semi, half; O.E. ripe]
A cutting taken from half-ripened wood of the growing season. See also: Cutting.
SEPAL
n [L. separare, to separate ]
The outer whorl of the perianth of a flower, usually small and green, but sometimes coloured and petal-like. Image /flowerinfos/10?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SEPTATE
a [L. septum, partition]
(of ovaries) Divided into locules by walls.
SEPTICIDAL
a [L. septum, division; caedere, to cut]
(of fruits) splitting open longitudinally through the septa so that the carpels, are separated.
SEPTUM
n [L. septum, division]
(of ovaries) The wall between two chambers (locules) of an ovary made up of two or more fused carpels (syncarpous ovary).
SERIATE
a [L. serere, to put in a row]
Arranged in a row. Image /leafshapes/39?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SERPENTINE LAYERING
n [L. serpere, to creep; layer, mason]
Serpentine layering is like simple layering except more than one portion of the stem is alternately covered and exposed . Each portion is rooted like a simple layer. The stem may be notched at the lower portion for each layer. It is mainly used with climbers or trailing plants. See LAYERING.
SERRATED
a [L. serra, saw]
Formed like the teeth of a saw. Image /leafshapes/39?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SERRULATE
a [L. serra, saw]
(of margins) Finely toothed, like a saw. Image /leafshapes/40?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SESSILE
a [L. sedere, to sit]
Attached without a petiole. Image /leafshapes/85?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SET
a [L. secta, sect]
1) A small onion, shallot bulb, or potato tuber, selected for planting. 2) A term describing flowers that have been successfully fertilized and have produced small fruits.
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
n [L. sexus, sex; re, again; producere, to lead forth]
A form of reproduction involving fertilization. giwing rise to seed or spores.
SHALLOWLY LOBED
a [M.E.Shallow,shallow;Gk. lobos,lobed]
As the name says the leaves are shallowly lobed. Image /leafshapes/81?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SHEATH
n [A.S. sceth, shell or pod]
A protective covering. The base of a leaf or leafstalk (petiole) which encases the stem. Image /flowerinfos/36?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SHEET MULCH
n [O.E. scete, sheet; melse, mulch]
A mulch using an artificially produced material (e.g. plastic).
SHOOT
n [A.S. sceotan, to dart]
The above-ground portions of a vascular plant, such as the stems and leaves the part of a plant which develops from the plumule of the embryo. A branch, stem.
SHRUB
n [M. E. shrubbe, bushwood]
A woody-stemmed plant, usually branched from or near the base, lacking a single trunk.
SIDE GRAFTING
n [O.E. side, side; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
With side grafting you attach a branch to a trunk: when the graft has grown together with the trunk after a year, you can choose whether to cut the rest off and use the new branch as the new tree, or simply to leave it as an additional branch. See GRAFTING.
SIDE-WEDGE GRAFTING
n [O.E. side; wecg, wedge; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
This technique differs from the side veneer graft in that no tissue is removed from the rootstock. A thin flap consisting of rind and a thin silver of tissue remains attached to the base of the rootstock. On the scion two slightly sloping cuts are made, so that it can be matched and callused on two sides. See GRAFTING.
SIDESHOOT
n [O.E. side, side; A.S. sceotan, to dart]
A stem that arises from the side of a main shoot.
SILICOLE
n [l. silex, flint; cloere, to inhabit]]
A plant triving in markedlyu silceous soil, See CALCICOLE, CALCIFUGE.
SILICULE OR SILICULA
n [L. silicula, little pod]
A dry fruit that opens along two lines and has a central persistent partition it is as broad as, or broader, than it is long, as in the Cruciferae.
SIMPLE
a [L. simplus]
Mainly of leaves not divided or lobed in any way. See Compound.
SIMPLE LAYERING
n [L. simpulus, simple; layer, mason]
can be accomplished by bending a low growing, flexible stem to the ground. Cover part of it with soil, leaving the remaining 6 to 12 inches above the soil. Bend the tip into a vertical position and stake in place. The sharp bend will often induce rooting, but wounding the lower side of the bent branch may help also. Simple layering can be done on most plants with low-growing branches. See LAYERING Layering.
SIMPLE RACEME
n [L. simpulus, simple; racemus, bunch]
An inflorescence with one main axis (with no additional branches) from which flowers grow on petioles
SIMPLE UMBEL
n [L. simpulus, simple; umbella, sunshade]
(of inflorescences) An umbel in which the stalks (pedicels) arise directly from the top of the main stalk.
SINGLE
a [L. singulus, single]
A plant containing the normal number of petals.
SINGLE
n [L. singulus, spmple]
A flower havinging only one whorl of petals. Image /flowerinfos/33?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SINGLE DIGGING
n [L. singulus, single; O.E. dic, ditch]
A method of digging in which only the topsoil is turned over to a depth of one spit.
SINUATED
a [L. sinus; curved]
Leaf edges with rounded shapes that approach and retreat from the middle several times. If the rounded shapes become larger and deeper, the leaves are lobed like oak leaves. Image /leafshapes/41?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SNAG
n [O.E. unknown]
A short stub or frayed end left after incorrect pruning.
SOFTWOOD CUTTING
n [O.E. softe, agreeable; wudu, wood]
A cutting taken from young, immature growth during the growing season. See Cutting.
SOIL MARK
n [L. soilum, seat; O.E. mearc, mark]
The usually noticeable point on a plant's stem that shows the original ,oil level before the plant was lifted.
SOLITARY
a [L. solitarus, alone]
(of flowers) Occurring singly in each axil.
SPADIX
n [L. spadix, palm branch]
A spike of flowers on a swollen, fleshy axis. As in the Arum or Calla lillies Image /flowerinfos/19?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPATHE
n [Gk. spathe, broad blade]
A large bract subtending and often ensheathing an inflorescence. Applied mainy in the monocotyledons. Image /flowerinfos/31?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPATULATE or SPATHULATE
a [L. spatula, spoon]
(of leaves) Shaped like a spoon. Image /leafshapes/19?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPECIES
n [L. species, species
A category in plant classification. the lowest principal rank below genra containing closely related, very similar individuals.
SPECIMEN PLANT
n [L. specere, to look; planta, sprout]
A striking plant, usually a tree or shrub in prime condition.
SPENT
a [L. dispendere, pay]
(of flowers). Dying or dead.
SPICATE
a [L. spica, spike]
Spike-like as an inflorescence bearing spikes, with spur-like prominance.
SPIKE
n [L. spica, spike or ear of corn]
A racemose and therefore an indeterminate inflorescence that bears unstalked(sessile) flowers along a common axis (stem). See Raceme Image /flowerinfos/1?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPIKELET
n [L.spica, spike]
A small spike, forming part of a compound inflorescence often applied to grasses where the flowerhead consists of several flowers with basal bracts.
SPINE
n [L. spina, spine]
The hard and sharply-pointed tip of a branch or leaf, usually round in cross section.
SPINOSE
a [L. spinosus, prickly]
Spiny. Bearing many spines. Image /leafshapes/42?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPIT
a [M.Du. spit, spit]
The depth of a spade's blade, usuallv 25-30cm (10-12in).
SPLICE GRAFTING
v [M.Du. splissen, split; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
An alternative name for whip grafting, see Grafting.
SPLICED SIDE GRAFTING
n [M.Du. splissen, splice; O.E. side; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
is where the top of the stock is not cut until the two grafted parts on the side of the stock have united. See GRAFTING.
SPLICED SIDE-VENEER GRAFTING
n [M.Du. splissen, splice; O.E. side, side; O.Fr. fournir, furnish]
Side-veneer grafting is usually done on potted rootstock. Rootstock is grown in pots the season before grafting, allowed to go dormant, and then stored as with other container nursery stock. After exposure to cold weather for at least six weeks, the rootstock is brought into a cool greenhouse for a few days before grafting takes place to encourage renewed root growth. The plant should not be watered at this time. A cut is made in the side of the stock and the scoin placed under the flap. See GRAFTING.
SPORANGIOCARP
n [Gk. sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel; karpos, fruit]
ASCOCARP, SPOROCARP q.v. The sexual fruiting body of a fungus in the Phylum Ascomycete(ascomycota). The Ascocarp contains the asci and ascospores.
SPORANGIUM
n [Gk. sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel]
A body that produces spores on a fern.
SPORE
n [Gk. sporos, seed]
The minute, reproductive structure of flowerless plants, such as ferns, fungi, and mosses. Image /leafshapes/111?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SPOROCARP
n [Gk. sporos, seed; karpos, fruit]
ASCOCARP, SPORANGIOCARP q.v. The sexual fruiting body of a fungus in the Class or Phylum Ascomycete(ascomycota). The Ascocarp contains the asci and ascospores.
SPORT
n [M.E. shortening of disport]
A somatic mutation. alt. ROGUE See MUTATION.
SPRAY
n [O.E. sprie, spray]
A group of,flowers or flowerheads on a single, branching stem, such as occurs on many chrysanthemums and carnations.
SPUR
n [A.S. spora, spur]
A hollow, usually rather conical. projection from the base of a sepal, petal. or fused corolla.
STALK
n [A.S. stel, stalk]
A general term describing the stem of a leaf or flower (e.g. petiole, peduncle).
STAMEN
n [L. stamen, warp]
The male reproductive organ in a plant, comprising the pollen-producing anther and usually its supporting filament or stalk. Image /flowerinfos/28?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
STAMINATE
a [L. stamen, warp]
Having stamens (male organism but no carpels (female organs) cf. PISTILLATE.
STAMINODE
n [L. stamen, warp; Gk. edios, form]
A sterile, often reduced modified stamen. alt PARASTAMEN.
STANDARD
n [L. stare, to stand]
1) A tree with at least 2m (6ft) of stem below the first branches . 2) A shrub trained so that it has a clear length of stem below the branches (1-1.2m/3-4ft for roses). 3) One of the three inner and often erect perianth segments of the iris flower. 4) The largest, usually uppermost petal of a flower in the subfamily Papilionoideae (peas and beans) of the famil,v Leguminosae. (see also HALF-STANDARD)
STATION SOW
v [L. statio, station; O.E. sewan, sow]
To sow seed individually or in small groups at fixed intervals along a row or drill.
STELLATE
a [L. stellatus, star]
Star-shaped.
STEM
n [A.S. setmn, stem]
The main axis of a plant, usually above ground and supporting leaves, flowers, and fruits.
STEM CUTTING
n [A.S. stemn tree stem]
A cutting taken from portion of a plant stem. Any cutting taken from of a shoot sometimes applied to softwood and greenwood cutting. See also: Cutting.
STEM TIP CUTTING
n [A.S. stemn, stem; O.N. typpi, tip; probably Ger. cut,cut]
Any cutting taken from of a shoot sometimes applied softwood and greenwood cutting. See CUTTING.
STERILE
a [L. sterilis, barren]
1) Not producing flowers or viable seed. 2) Of flowers without functional anthers and pistils. See CARPEL. (Cf. FERTILE).
STERILE
a [L. sterilis, barren]
To render incapable of causing infection or reproduction. Alt[AXENIC]
STIGMA
n [Gk. stigma, a mark]
The part of the female reproductive organ which receives the pollen prior to fertilization. Image /flowerinfos/30?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
STIPULATE
a [L. stipula, small stalk]
Having a stalk or stipe. Image /leafshapes/87?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
STIPULES
n [L. stipula, small stalk]
Leaflike organs at the bottom of the petiole. They are usually paired and often small.
STOCK
n [A.S. stocc, post]
The stem of a treeor bush receiving bud or scoin inh grafting. 2) The perennial part of a herbaceous perrenial plant] See ROOTSTOCK.
STOCK PLANT
n [A.S. stocc post; O.E. plante, plant]
A plant used to obtain propagation material whether seed or vegetative material.
STOLON
n [L. stolo, shoot]
A horizontally spreading or arching stem, usually above ground, which roots at its tip to produce a new plant. Often confused with runner.
STOMATA
n [Gk. stoma, mouth]
The pores that occur in large numbers in the epidermis of plants and through which gaseous exchange takes place.
STONE FRUIT
n [O.E. stan, stone; L. fructus, fruit]
Fruits, also known as "drupes", with one or more seeds ("stones") surrounded by fleshy, usually edible tissue. They are common in the genus Prunus (e.g. apricots, plums, cherries) and some other plants, such as mangos, that produce indehiscent, woody fruits.
STOOL
n [O.E. stool, seat]
A number of shoots arising, more or less uniformly, from the base , of an individual plant, for example some shrubs cut back regularly to produce propagating material and also chrysanthemums.
STOOL LAYERING
n [O.E. stool, seat; M.E. layer, mason]
Stool or mound layering is widely used to produce clonal rootstocks of apple and plum. Plants are cut back almost to ground level and allowed to sprout new shoots, soil (or a mixture of soil and sawdust) is mounded up around the bases of these shoots and the mound is built up as the shoots grow. Roots develop at the bases of these shoots. The following spring the rooted layers are cut off and transplanted into nursery rows for another season's growth. See LAYERING
STOOLING
a [O.E. stool, stool]
(of plants) Having several stems arising together at the base. The routine pruning back of woody plants by coppicing. See LAYERING
STOPPING
vn [O.E. stoppian, to block up]
The cutting out of the apex growing piont of a plant to induce side shoots. See PINCHING OUT.
STRAIN
a [O.E. strion, aquision]
A loose, undefined term sometimes applied to races of seed-raised plants not a term accepted under the International Code for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants because of its imprecise definition.
STRATIFICATION
a [L. stratum, layer; facere, to make]
Storage of seed in warm or cold conditions to overcome dormancy and aid germination.
STYLAR COLUMN
n [L. stylus, pricker; columna, pillar]
Styles fused together.
STYLE
n [Gk. stylos, pillar]
The usually elongated part of a carpel between the ovary and stigma, not always present. Image /flowerinfos/17?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SUB-LATERAL
a [L. sub, belowlatus, side]
A sideshoot originating from a lateral shoot or branch.
SUBAPICAL
a [L. sub, under; apex, summit]
Below the apex.
SUBFAMILY
a [L. sub, under; familia, household]
A category in plant classification, a division within the family.
SUBSHRUB
n [L. sub, under; M.E. shrubbe, bushwood]
Borderline case between a bush and an herbaceous plant. Initially, it will have herbaceous branches, but later it will have small woody branches.Usually a low growing plant that is woody at the base but has soft, usually herbaceous, growth above.
SUBSOIL
n [L. sub, under; solium, seat]
The layers of soil beneath the topsoil these are usually less fertile and of poorer texture and structure than the topsoil.
SUBSPECIES
n [L. sub, under; species, particular kind]
A subdivision of a species, higher in rank than varietas (see FORMA.)
SUBULATE
a [L. subula, awl]
Narrow and tapering to a point. Like a pointed braddle or awl. Become gradually narrower or thinner toward one end, like an onion leaf. Image /leafshapes/20?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=5
SUCCULENT
n [L. succus, sap]
(of plants). A plant with thick, fleshy leaves and/or stems adapted to store water. All cacti are succulents.
SUCKER
n [A.S. sucan, to suck]
1) A shoot that arises below ground from a plant's roots or underground stem. 2) On grafted plants, a sucker is any shoot that arises below the graft union.
SUFFRUTESCENT
n [L. sub, under; frutex, shrub]
(of herbaceous plants) Having a persistent woody stem base.
SUPERIOR
a [L. superior, upper]
An ovary situated above the other organs of the flower, meaning that it isvisible when looking from above into the flower.
SUSCEPTIBLE
n [L. suscipere, to undergo]
A plant, animal or organism or system that lacks the ability to resist a disease, a pathogen or virus.
SUTURE
n [L. sutura, seam]
A line of union the line along which dehiscence often takes place in fruits.
SYMBIOSIS
n [Gk. symbionai, to tive together]
The non-parasitic relationship between living organisms to their mutual benefit.
SYMPETALOUS
a [Gk. syn, with; petalon, leaf]
With the petals united along their margins, at least at the base. q.v. GAMOPETALOUS cf. MONOPETALOUS, POLYPETALOUS
SYMPODIAL
a [Gk. syn, with; pous, foot]
Definite growth of a shoot terminating in an inflorescence or dying growth is continued by lateral buds. (Cf CYME and MONOPODIAL.)
SYMPODIAL
a [Gk. syn, with; pous, foot]
The growth of lateral shoots below and to one side of the apical shoot, when the apical shoot stops growing.
SYNANAMORPH
n [Gk. syn, with; morph, form]
Two or more distinct anatomic forms (anamorphs) produced the same fungus.
SYNCARPOUS
n [Gk. syn, with; karpos, fruit]
(of ovaries) Made up of two or more fused carpels.
SYNNEMA
n [Gk. syn, with; nema, thread]
Conidiophores that are fuse together to form a stalk with conidia at the end or on the edges. Te united stamen filaments of certain plants.
SYNONYM
n [Gk. sunonumon, with name]
A word or phrase referring to another name for the same thing. e..g. shut, close.
SYSTEMIC
a [Gk. sustema, with setup]
Term describing a pesticide or fungicide that is absorbed and distributed through a plant when applied to the soil or foliage.
T
T-BUDDING
n [O.E. t,t; budde, bud]
A special grafting technique in which the scion piece is reduced to a single bud. See GRAFTING)
TAP ROOT
n [M.E. tappe, short pipe; A.S. wyrt, root]
The primary, downwardgrowing root of a plant (especially a tree) also applied loosely to any strong, downward-growing root.
TASSEL
n [O.F. tasel, a clasp]
An inflorescence of male flowers in maize plants.
TAXIS
n [Gk. taxis, arrangement]
Taxis a free movement or activity of a cell or an organism towards(positive) or away(negative) from a stimulus. cf.[KENESIS]
TAXON
n [Gk. taxis, arrangement]
A group of living organism of any rank applied to groups of plants or entities that share distinc, defined characters.
TELEMORPH
n [Gk. tele, far;morphosis, shaping]
In fungus the part of the life cycle where the sexual spores( ascospores, or basidiospores) are produced.
TELEOMORPH
n [Gk. teleos, end; morphe, form]
In the naming of sexual and non-sexual states of the fungi, it is the part of the life cycle that produces sexual spores. Where both sexual and asexual phases exists the teleomorph phase takes precedence. cf. ANAMORPH
TELIOSPORE
n [Gk. telos, end; sporos, seed]
In rust fungi, it is the spores that are produced to overwinter or having a resting stage.
TELIUM
n [Gk. telos, end]
A group of spore producing cells(sorus), produced by rust fungi, on the leaves of plants.
TENACIOUS
a [L. tenax, tenac (from tenare to hold]
Not relinquishing something, keeping a firm hold; To persist in existing.
TENDER
a [L. tener, delicate]
Of plants that are vulnerable to frost damage.
TENDRIL
n [O.Fr. tendrillon, tender sprig]
A modified leaf, branch, or stem, usually filiform (long and slender) and capable of attaching itself to a support. (See also CLIMBER.) Image /leafshapes/21
TENERAL
a [L. tener, tender]
The immature stage of an insect after it has emerged from its nymphal exoskeleton or integument. The insect may change colour at this stage.
TEPAL
n [Fr. tepale, from petale]
A single segment of a perianth that cannot be distinguished either as a sepal or petal, as in Crocus or Lilium. (See also Perianth segment.)
TERMINAL
a [L. terminus, end]
Situated at the apex of a stem or branch usually refers to a bud or flower.
TERMINAL BUD
n [L. terminus, end; O.E. budde, bud]
The bud at the end of a stem or flower spike. See BUD.
TERNATE
a [L. terni, three each]
(of leaves) Compound, divided into three parts more or less equally. Each part may itself be further sub-divided.
TERRARIUM
n [L. terra, earth; aquarium, of water]
An enclosed container made of glass or plastic in which plants are grown.
TERRESTRIAL
a [L. terra, earth]
Growing in the soil a land plant. (Cf. EPIPHYTE, AQUATIC.)
TESSELLATED
a [L. tessella, small stone cube]
(of leaves) Marked with a fine chequered pattern, like a mosaic.
TESTA
n [L. testa, shell]
The outer protective covering of a seed.
thallophytes
n [Gk.thalous, young shoot; phyton plant]
A major division in the plant kingdom where the plant is not differentiated into root, stems and leaves. Thalluses are produced by lichens, mosses, liverworts, and many algae, as well as the gametophyte generations of horsetails and ferns.
THALLUS
n [Gk. thallos, young shoot]
A type of plant body that is not differentiated into root, stem or leaf.
THATCH
n [O.E. theccan, cover]
A layer of dead, organic matter intermingled with living stems that accumulates on the soil surface in lawns.
THECA
n [Gk. theke, case]
One half of an anther containing two pollen sacs.
THIN
a [O.E. thynne, thin]
(of soil) Used loosely of poor soil, prone to capping and drought.
THINNING
a [O.E. thynne, thin]
The removal of seedlings, shoots, flowers, or fruit buds to improve the growth and quality of the remainder.
THORAX
n [Gk. thorax, chest]
In higher invertebrates the part of the body between the neck and the abdomen which carries the lungs and the heart. In insects it is the middle section of the body, which carries the legs.
THREE-NUMBERED
a [L. tres, tree; numerus, several]
(ALSO FOUR-NUMBERED, ETC.) In terms of leaves, having three small leaves on one common petiole (with only three leaves, pinnately divided and digitate can barely be differentiated). In terms of flowers, having three of all organs, for example trisepalous, tripetalous, six stamens, and a trilocular ovary., Although stamens often grow in doubled numbers, the ovary usually does not.
THRESHOLD
n [O.E. threscold, first element]
The plinth at a doorway. The level at which something starts or end. The level of stimulus at which something is perceptible or acceptable.
THROAT
n [O,E. throte, throat]
The site in a calyx or corolla of united parts where the tube and limbs meet.
THYRSE
n [Gk. thyrsos, wand]
A dense, paniclelike flower cluster, like the lilac, in which the lateral branches terminate in cymes. Image /flowerinfos/25?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TI-PLASMID
n [Gk. plasma, form]
A gall or tumer forming plasmid found in the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
TILLER
n [A.S. telgor a small branch]
a shoot arising from a rhizome or base of a plant as in grasses from ground level.
TILTH
a [O.E. tilian, strive for]
A fine, crumbly, surface layer of soil produced by cultivation.
TIP LAYERING
n [O.N. typpi, top; M.E. layer, mason]
Tip layering is similar to simple layering and happens naturally with plants such as black raspberry and trailing blackberries. The tip of a branch touches the ground and roots form. Tip layering simply mimics this natural process. See LAYERING
TIP PRUNE
a [O.E. typpi, top; O.Fr. prune, abreviate]
To cut back the growing tip of a shoot to encourage sideshoots or to remove damaged growth.
TISSUE
n [Fr. tissu, woven]
The fundamental structure of animals and plants organs which is made up of similar cells.
TISSUE CULTURE
a [Fr. tissu, woven; L. cultura, cultivation, colere, to till]
(of plants) The growing of plant tissue under sterile conditions in artificial media.
TOBAMOVIRUS
n [Sp. tobac, tobaco; Gk. musa, a muse; virus, a poison]
A Genus of viruses which contains the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, which infects members of the solanaceae family. There are four subgroups within this genus; the solanaceous, brassicas, cucurbits and malvaceous-infecting.
TOLERANCE
n [L. tolerare, to endure; antia, state or condition]
The ability of a plant to a disease, chemical or condition without a significant decrease in growth or yield. The amount of variation allowed in a dimension or the amount of chemical in a plant or substance.
TOMENTOSE
a [L. tomentum, stuffing]
Densely covered in short hairs.
TOP-DRESSING
a [O.E. topp, top; O.Fr. dresser, arrange]
I ) An application of soluble fertilizers, fresh soil, or compost to the soil surface around a plant or to lawns to replenish nutrients. 2) A decorative dressing applied to the soil surface around a plant.
TOPIARY
n [L. topiarius, ornimental gardener]
The art of clipping and training trees and shrubs into various, usually intricate, geometric or free shapes.
TOPSOIL
n [O.E. topp, top; L. solium, seat(ass. with ground)]
The uppermost, normally fertile, layer of soil.
TOROSE
a [L. torulus , dim. of torus]
referring to a cylindrical or ellipsoid body which is swollen and constricted at intervals along its length. alt[TORULOSE]
TORULOSE
a [L. torulus , dim. of torus]
referring to a cylindrical or ellipsoid body which is swollen and constricted at intervals along its length. alt[TOROSE]
TOXIC
a [Gk. toxikon, poison]
of a substance that is capable of causing injury if it enters the cells of the body.
TOXICANT
a [Gk. toxikon, poison]
The poisonous substance or agent in a chemical formulation or natural secretion.
TOXIN
a [Gk. toxikon, poison]
Any substance that is capable of causing injury if it enters the cells of the body.
TRACE ELEMENT
n [O.Fr. trais, trait; elementum, principle]
Chemicals that are in minute quantities in a substance or body. See MICRONUTRIENTS.
TRAILING CLIMBER
n [L. trahere, dragnet; O.E. climban, climb]
A climbing plant that grows over the ground or plants. See CLIMBER.
TRANSLOCATED
a [L. trans, across; locare, to place]
(of dissolved nutrients or weedkillers) Moving within the vascular system (conducting tissues) of a plant.
TRANSPIRATION
n [L. trans, across; spirare, to breathe]
The loss of water by evaporation from the leaves and stems of plants.
TRANSPLANTING
v [L. trans, across; plantare, to plant]
Moving a plant from one position to another.
TREE
n [M.E. tre, tree]
A woody, perennial plant usually with a well-defined trunk or stem with a head or crown of branches above, with few or no branches arising from the base..
TRENCH
n [L. truncare, maim]
A long narrow ditch. See DOUBLE DIGGING.
TRI-
prx [Gk. tries, tree]
A prefix meaning three.
TRIASSIC
a [Gk. tria, three; L. ic, forming adjective]
The Triassic is a geologic period from about 250 to 200 million years ago. It is the First period of the Mesozoic era before the Jurassic and the Cretaceous periods. The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich Von Alberti from the three distinct layers of rock formations, red beds, covered by chalk, then by black shales which are found throughout Germany and northwest Europe. cf.[JURASSIC, CRETACEOUS]
TRIBOLOID
a [Gk. tribolos, burr; eidos form]
Covered in pointed outgrowths like a burr. Prickly. alt[ECHINULATE]
TRICHOME
n [Gk. trichoma, growth of hair]
A hair-like outgrowth.
TRICOLPATE
a [Gk. tries, tree; kalpos, fold]
(of pollen) Having three colpi.
TRIFOLIOLATE
a [L. tres, tree; folium, leaf]
(of leaves) Having three leaflets. Image /leafshapes/47?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TRIPINNATE
a [L. tres, three; pinna, feather]
These compound leaves are pinnately divided three times before the leaflets (pinna) appear. Image /leafshapes/88?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TRUE
a [O.E. treowe, steadfast]
(True-breeding) Of plants that when self-pollinated give rise to offspring similar to their parents. (see SELFPOLLINATION)
TRUNCATE
a [L. truncatus, to cut off]
(of leaves) The end of the leaves appear blunt or truncated. Image /leafshapes/67?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
TRUNK
n [L. truncus, stem of a tree]
The thickened, woody, main stem of a tree.
TRUSS
n [O.Fr. trusse, pack up]
A compact cluster of flowers or fruits.
TUBE
n [L.tubus, tube]
The united, usually cylindrical part of the calyx or corolla made up of united parts. cf LIMB.
TUBER
n [L. tuber, hump]
A swollen, usually underground, organ derived from a stem or root, used for food storage.
TUFA
n [It. a variation of tufo]
A porous limestone rock that absorbs and retains moisture used for cultivating alpine plants difficult to grow in garden soil.
TUNIC
n [L. tunica, coating]
The fibrous membranes or papery outer skin of bulbs or corms.
TUNICATE
a [L. tunica, a coating]
Enclosed in a tunic.
TURION
n [L. turia, shoot]
1) A detached, ovenwintering. usually fleshy, bud produced by certain water plants. 2) A term sometimes applied to an adventitious shoot or sucker. A short, scaly branch produced from a rhizome.
TWINING CLIMBER
n [O. E. twin, thread, climban, climb]
A climbing plant that climbs by wrapping itself around other plants or obstacles. See CLIMBER.
U
U CORDON
a [L. u,u; chorda, cord]
A double cordon.
UMBEL
n [L. umbella, shade]
An umbrella-shaped inflorescence with all the stalks (pedicels) arising from the top of the stalk. Umbels are sometimes compound, with all the stalks producing umbels. See Umbel (Compound). Image /flowerinfos/7?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
UMBEL (COMPOUND)
n [L. umbella, shade]
An umbrella-shaped inflorescence with all the stalks (pedicles) arising from the top of the stem. At the end of each new stalk a new umbrella-shaped inflorescence also appears. See Umbel. Image /fowerinfos/22
UNDERPLANTING
v [O.E. under, beneath; L. planta, sole of foot]
Low-growing plants planted beneath larger plants.
UNDERSHRUB
n [O.E. under, beneath; M.E. shrubbe, bushwood]
A perennial plant with lower woody parts, but herbaceous upper parts that die back seasonally.
UNDERSTORY
n [O.E. under, beneath; L. historia, story]
A layer of shrubs, usually in deciduous woodland or tropical rain forests. Undulate (of leaves) With wavy margins.
UNDULATE
a [L. undosus, billowy]
(of leaves) The edges are wavy up and down. Image /leafshapes/43?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
UNIFOLIOLATE
a [L. unus, one; folium, leaf]
With a single leaflet that has a stalk distinct from the stalk of the whole leaf. Image /leafshapes/48?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
UNILOCULAR
a [L. unus, one; loculus, compartment]
(of ovaries) Containing one chamber (locule) in which the ovules or seeds occur.
UNION
n [ L. unus, one]
The jiont between a graft. See GRAFT UNION
UNISERIATE
a [L. unus, one, serere, to put in a row]
Arranged in a single row, series or layer, eg perianth-segments.
UNISEXUAL
a [L. unus, one; sexus, sex]
A flower with the reproductive organs of only one gender. (Most flowers have both a stamen, the male reproductive organ, and an ovary, the female reproductive organs, which makes them hermaphroditic.
UPRIGHT TERM
a [O.E, upriht, vertical; L. treminus, end]
describing the habit a plant with vertical or semi-vertical main branches. (Cf. FASTIGIATE.)
URN-SHAPED
a [L. urna, jar; Gmc. sceppan, create]
(of flowers). Globose to cylindrical in shape with a somewhat constricted mouth U-shaped.
UTRICLE
n [L. utriculus, small bag]
A small bladder-like, single-seeded dry fruit.
V
VACUOLE
n [L. vacuus, empty]
One of the spaces in a cell cytoplasm that appears empty or clear, but contains air, water, food and other materials.
VALVATE
a [L. valva, fold]
(of perianth-segments) With the margins adjacent without overlapping cf IMBRICATE.
VARIABLE
n [L. variare, to change]
Varying in character from the type particularly of seed-raised plants that vary in character from the parent.
VARIEGATED
a [L. variegare, to make various]
Marked with various colours in an irregular pattern: particularly used for leaves patterned with white and yellow markings but not confined to these colours.
VARIETY
n [ varietas, variety]
1) Botanically, a natural occurring variant (varietas - var. of a wild species, between the rank of subspecies and,forma. 2) Also commonly but imprecisely used to describe any variant of a plant. Cf. CULTIVAR.
VASCULAR
a [L. vasculum, small vessel]
Pertains to conductive tissues like Phloem, xylem, arteries or veins thet is concerned with the transport of fluids.
VASCULAR BUNDLE
n [L. vasculum, small vessel; O.E. byundelle, a binding]
A strand of tissue involved in water and food transport.
VASCULAR POSSESSING VESSELS
a [L. vasculum, small vessel; procession, proceed ; vascellum, dim of vas, vessel]
A vessel that is able to conduct water and nutrients.
VEGETATIVE GROWTH
a [L. vegetare, to enliven; O. E. growan, grass]
Non-flowering usually leafy growth.
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
v [L. vegetare, to enliven]
The increase of plants by asexual methods normally resulting in genetically identical individuals. for example: grafting or ofshoot propagation.
VEIN
n [L. vena, vein]
Any of the visible strands of conducting and strengthening tissues running through a leaf.
VENATION
a [L. vena, vein]
The arrangement of the veins of a leaf.
VENTRAL
a [L.venter, belly]
On the lower side.
VERMICULITE
n [L. vermis, worm]
A lightweight, minerial allowing good water retention and aeration when used in cutting compost and other potting media.
VERNATION
a [vernatio, sloughing]
(of leaves) The manner and pattern of arrangement within the bud.
VERNATION
n [L. vernatio, sloughing]
The arrangement of leaves in the bud. Often called vernus spring. It importance lies in the fact that in general the same mode of vernation(Involute, Circinate, Convolute etc.) is usually common in whole tribes or orders. It is to the flower-bud what aestivation(aestivus of summer) is to the flower-bud. cf.[AESTIVATION]
VERTICILLASTER
n [L. verticillus, small whorl; aster, star]
A much condensed cyme with the appearance of a whorl, but in reality arising in the axils of opposite leaves. Image /flowerinfos/26?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=6
VESSELS
n [L. vascellum, dim of vvas, vessel]
Tube-like cells arranged end to end in the wood of flowering plants and which form the principal pathway in the transport of water and mineral salts.
VIRULENCE
n [L. virus,poison; ulentus, used to form adj.]
The degree of ability to cause a disease or the degree of extreme hostility; antagonistic behaviour; hatefulness; spitefulness; venomousity; rancor.
VIRULENT
a [L. virus,poison; ulentus, used to form adj.
Easily causing a disease; being pathogenitic. Extremely hostile or antagonistic; hateful; spiteful; venomous; rancorous.
VIRULIFEROUS
a [L. virus,poison; O.E. lif, to,live; L. osus, full of]
Carrying or containing a virus. e;g; veriliferous aphids.
VIRUSES
n [L. virus, poisonous liquid]
An ultra small intracellular parasite that can only be seen under an electron microscope. They have DNA covered in a protein coat and uses the cell to reproduce its DNA to replicate. itself. Infection is either persistant(being able to be transmitted by insects or agents) or non-persistant(not being able to be transmitted by insects or vectors). Viruses usually stunts a plant or creat various colours or growths in plants. Many viruses are important diseases in animals like the influenza viruses. All living things can be infected by viruses as they are so small. Image http://www.dpvweb.net/intro/index.php
VISCIDIUM
n [l.viscum, mistletoe]
In orchids flowers, a sticky disc at the end of the stalk of the pollinium, Which getys attaches to a pollinating insect.
W
W-CHROMOSOME
n [Gk. chroma, colour; soms, body]
A sex determining chromosome in some animals like birds and moths. The distribution of the sex chromosomes is different than normal - males have two Z chromosomes, and females have one Z and one W. Normally in mammals, males have an X and Y sex chromosome and females have two X sex determining chromosomes, but male birds or moths have two Z chromosome pairs and females have one Z and one W chromosome. The Y and the W chromosomes are smaller and the X and Z are larger. Therefore in birds or moths there is an opposite mirror image in the sex determining chromosomes where the female is the heterogametic sex.
WATER POTENTIAL(WP)
n [O.E. waeter, water; L. potentia, power]
The capacity of tissues or soil to hold or absorb water. It is the energy level of water relative to pure water.
WATER SHOOTS
n [O.E. waeter, water; sceota, shot]
Applied usually to epicormic shoots that frequently arise close to pruning wounds on tree trunks or branches.
Water soaked
n [ O.E. waeter, water; sucan, to suck]
Is a symptom of diseased plant tissues, usually of bacteria or fungi attack, where the tissues looks wet or translutant.
WHIP
n [M.Du. wippen, swing]
A young seedling or grafred tree without lateral branches.
WHIP GRAFTING
a [M.Du. wippen; O.Fr. graffe, graft]
Whip grafting, tongue grafting, the same as splice grafting, except that a cleft or slit is made in the end of both scion and stock, in the direction of the grain and in the middle of the sloping surface, forming a kind of tongue, so that when put together, the tongue of each is inserted in the slit of the other. See GRAFTING.
WHIP-AND-TONGUE GRAFTING
a [M.Du. wippen, swing; O.E. tung, tongue; O.Fr. graffe,graft]
Whip and tongue grafting is used for the production of fruit stock and some ornamentals. It is normally undertaken in March or early April on rootstocks planted 12 months previously. This technique uses two cuts on both the scion and the rootstock, which enables the two parts to be 'locked' together. This gives a structurally strong graft suitable for field conditions. See GRAFTING.
WHORL
n [A.S. hweorfan, to turn]
The arrangement of three or more organs, such as leaves, petals, sepals and stamens arising from the same level in an encircling ring. Image /leafshapes/38?gloss=1&ordr=0&telephone=7
WIDGER
n [Engl. from 1950's]
A spatula-shaped tool, used for transplanting or pricking out seedlings.
WILT
v [Ger. welk, lose freshness]
the lack of turgor pressure in plants cells leading to drooping.
WIND-ROCK
n [O.E. windan, go rapidily; roccian, remove]
The destabilizing of a plant's roots by strong wind.
WINDBREAK
n [O.E. windan, go rapidly; brecan, brake]
Any structure but often a hedge, fence, or wall that shelters plants and filters strong winds.
WING PAD
n [O.N. vaengir, wing;Ger. pad, sole of the foot]
The undeveloped wing of nymphal insects.
WINGED
a [O.N. voengir, to play a role]
Having wide, flat edges. Winged petioles usually have two such edges winged stems usually have four.
WINTER WET
n [O.E. woet, to water]
Excessive amounts of water that accumulate in the soil during the winter months.
WITCHES BROOM
n [O.E. wicca, female; brom, brushwood]
An abnormal growth of branches from one place in many trees and plants as a result of attack by fungi, insects, bacteria or viruses.
WOODY
n [A.S. wudu, wood]
Ligneous, a term describing stems or trunks that are hard ant thickened rather than soft and pliable. (Cf. HERBACEOUS.)
WOUND
n [O.E. wund, injury]
A cut or broken area in a plant.
WOUND PAINT
n [O.E. wund, injury; L. pingere, to paint]
A specialized paint that used to be applied to a cut plant after pruning.
X
X-CHROMOSOME
n [Gk. chroma, colour; soms, body]
One of the two sex determining chromosome, in most mamals, which pairs with the Y-CHROMOSOME in hetrogametic sex. Females do not have a Y chromosome. The DNA in the Y chromosome is passed from father to son.
XEROMORPHIC
n [Gk. xeros, dry; morphe, form]
Possessing characteristics such as reduced leaves, succulence, dense hairiness or a thick cuticle which are adaptations to conserve water and so withstand extremely dry conditions.
XEROPHYTE
n [Gk. xeros, dry; phyton, plant]
A plant which is adapted to withstand extremely dry conditions.
XYLEM
n [Gk.xylon, wood]
The woody fluid-conveying (vascular) tissue concerned with the transport of water about the plant. cf. PHLOEM VESSEL.
Y
Y-CHROMOSOME
n [Gk. chroma, colour; soms, body]
One of the two sex determining chromosome, in most mamals, which pairs with the X-CHROMOSOME in hetrogametic sex. Females do not have a Y chromosome. The DNA in the Y chromosome is passed from father to son
YELLOWS
n [O.E. geolu, rel. to gold]
Yellows is a plant diseases that causes yellowing of the leaves and stunted growth. In diseased plants there are many membrane-bound structures resembling mycoplasma-like organisms within the phloem sieve elements although these are not confirmed as the agents of the disease. Some of the yellows agents could be obligate intra-cellular parasites.
Z
Z-CHROMOSOME
n [Gk. chroma, colour; soms, body]
A sex determining chromosome in some animals like birds and moths. The distribution of the sex chromosomes is different than normal - males have two Z chromosomes, and females have one Z and one W. Normally in mammals, males have an X and Y sex chromosome and females have two X sex determining chromosomes, but male birds or moths have two Z chromosome pairs and females have one Z and one W chromosome. The Y and the W chromosomes are smaller and the X and Z are larger. Therefore in birds or moths there is an opposite mirror image in the sex determining chromosomes where the female is the heterogametic sex.
ZONAL
a [L. zonalis, pert. to zone ]
Pertaining to a zone.
ZONATE
a [L. zona, girdle]
Zoned or marked in concentric lines. Often forming pale and darker zones.
ZOOLITE
n [Gk. zoon, animal; lithos, stone]
A fossil animal. alt[ZOOLITH]
ZOOLITH
n [Gk. zoon, animal; lithos, stone]
A fossil animal. alt[ZOOLITE]
ZOOLOGY
n [Gk. zoon, animallogos, discource]
The science of all aspects like form, function, behaviour, distribution and history of animals.
ZOON
n [Gk. zoon, animal]
an individual animal developed from an egg
ZOOSPORANGIUM
n [Gk. zoon, animal;sporos, seed; anggeion, vessel]
A vessel in which zoospores are formed.
ZOOSPORE
n [Gk. zoon, animal; sporos, seed]
A flagella bearing motile cell for sexual reproduction in algae and fungi.
ZYGOSPERM
n [Gk. zygon, yolk; sporos, seed]
The resting spore of zygomycetes formed by the conjugation of similar sex cells. alt[ZYGOSPORE].
ZYGOSPHERE
n [Gk. zygon, yolk; sphaira, globe]
A gamete that conjugates with a similar gamete forming a zygosphore.
ZYGOSPORE
n [Gk. zygon, yolk; sporos, seed]
The resting spore of zygomycetes formed by the conjugation of similar sex cells. alt[ZYGOSPERM].

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